Software-Engineering

Question 1
In unit testing of a module, it is found that for a set of test data, at the maximum 90% of the code alone were tested with the probability of success 0.9. The reliability of the module is
A
Greater than 0.9
B
Equal to 0.9
C
At most 0.81
D
At least 0.81
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       ISRO-2018
Question 1 Explanation: 
Given data
Step-1: 90% of code were tested,
Testing with the probability=0.9
Step-2: We can write tested data into 0.9 because it is given in percentages.
Step-3: Reliability of the module = Tested data * probability
= 0.9 * 0.9
= 0.81(at most)
Question 2
Which of the following is not a UML DIAGRAM?
A
Use Case
B
Class Diagram
C
Analysis Diagram
D
Swimlane Diagram
       Software-Engineering       UML       ISRO-2007
Question 2 Explanation: 
Use Case, Class Diagram and Swimlane Diagram are all three UML diagrams but Analysis Diagram is not.
Question 3
To execute all loops at their boundaries and within their operational bounds is an example of
A
Black Box Testing
B
Alpha Testing
C
Recovery Testing
D
White Box Testing
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       ISRO-2007
Question 3 Explanation: 
White box testing is a testing technique which evaluates the code and the internal structure of a program. It involves looking at the structure of the code, when a tester already know the internal structure of a product, tests can be conducted to ensure that the internal operations performed according to the specification and all internal components have been adequately exercised.
White Box Testing is coverage of the specification in the code:
1. Code coverage
2. Segment coverage: Ensure that each code statement is executed once.
3. Branch Coverage or Node Testing: Coverage of each code branch in from all possible was.
4. Compound Condition Coverage: For multiple conditions test each condition with multiple paths and combination of the different path to reach that condition.
5. Basis Path Testing: Each independent path in the code is taken for testing.
6. Data Flow Testing (DFT): It is defining the set of intermediate paths through the code.
7. Path Testing: Path testing is where all possible paths through the code are defined and covered.
8. Loop Testing: these strategies relate to testing single loops, concatenated loops, and nested loops.
Question 4
Which of the following is not an approach to Software Process Assessment?
A
SPICE(ISO/IEC15504)
B
Standard CMMI Assessment Method for process improvement
C
ISO 9001:2000
D
IEEE 2000:2001
       Software-Engineering       Software-process-models       ISRO-2007
Question 4 Explanation: 
The process assessment leads to process capability determination and process improvement. Process capability determination is an organized assessment, which analyzes the software processes in an organization.The process improvement identifies the changes to be made in the software processes.
Different approaches are used for assessing software process. These approaches are SPICE (ISO/IEC15504), ISO 9001:2000, standard CMMI assessment method for process improvement, CMM-based appraisal for internal process improvement, and Bootstrap.
Question 5
A physical DFD specifies
A
what processes will be used
B
who generates data and who processes it
C
what each person in an organization does
D
which data will be generated
       Software-Engineering       DFD       ISRO-2007
Question 5 Explanation: 
Physical DFD specifies actual flow of physical documentation and depicts how the system will be implemented.
The processes represent the programs, program modules, and manual procedures.
The data stores represent the physical files and databases, manual files.
It show controls for validating input data, for obtaining a record, for ensuring successful completion of a process, and for system security.
Question 6
In UML diagram of a class
A
state of object cannot be represented
B
state is irrelevant
C
state is represented as an attribute
D
state is represented as a result of an operation
       Software-Engineering       UML       ISRO-2007
Question 6 Explanation: 
The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a general-purpose, developmental, modeling language in the field of software engineering, that is intended to provide a standard way to visualize the design of a system.
A class diagram in the Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a type of static structure diagram that describes the structure of a system by showing the system’s classes as attributes, operations and the relationships among objects.
Question 7
Which of the following models used for software reliability
A
Waterfall
B
Musa
C
COCOMO
D
Rayleigh
       Software-Engineering       Software-process-models       ISRO-2007
Question 7 Explanation: 
Rayleigh Model:
This model predicts fault detection over the life of the software development effort and can be used in conjunction with the other prediction techniques. Software management may use this profile to gauge the defect status. This model assumes that over the life of the project that the faults detected per month will resemble a Raleigh curve
Musa Model:
This prediction technique is used to predict, prior to system testing, what the failure rate will be at the start of system testing. This prediction can then later be used in the reliability growth modelling. For this prediction method, it is assumed that the only thing known about the hypothetical program is a prediction of its size and the processor speed.
COCOMO:
The constructive cost model was developed as a model for estimating effort, cost, and schedule for software projects.
Waterfall Model:
Waterfall is the software development life cycle model which depicts the phases of conception, initiation, analysis, design, construction, testing, deployment and maintenance.
Musa model is also used for software reliability testing but Rayleigh model is very popularly used with higher accuracy.
Question 8
The Functions Point (FP) metric is
A
Calculated from user requirement
B
Calculated from lines of code
C
Calculated from software complexity assessment
D
None of the above
       Software-Engineering       ISRO-2018
Question 8 Explanation: 
→ The functional user requirements of the software are identified and each one is categorized into one of five types: outputs, inquiries, inputs, internal files, and external interfaces.
→ Once the function is identified and categorized into a type, it is then assessed for complexity and assigned a number of function points.
→ Each of these functional user requirements maps to an end-user business function, such as a data entry for an Input or a user query for an Inquiry.
→ This distinction is important because it tends to make the functions measured in function points map easily into user-oriented requirements, but it also tends to hide internal functions (e.g. algorithms), which also require resources to implement.
Question 9
The lower degree of cohesion is kind of
A
Logical Cohesion
B
Coincidental Cohesion
C
Procedural Cohesion
D
Communicational Cohesion
       Software-Engineering       Coupling-and-Cohesion       ISRO-2018
Question 9 Explanation: 
Cohesion is a measure of the degree to which elements of a module are functional related.
Question 10
Estimation of software development effort for organic software in basic COCOMO is
A
E = 2.0(KLOC)1.05 Per Month
B
E = 3.4(KLOC)1.06 Per Month
C
E = 2.4(KLOC)1.05 Per Month
D
E = 2.4(KLOC)1.07 Per Month
       Software-Engineering       COCOMO-Model       ISRO-2017 May
Question 10 Explanation: 
The basic COCOMO equations take the form
1. Effort Applied (E) = ab(KLOC)bb [ man-months ]
2. Development Time (D) = cb(Effort Applied)db [months]
3. People required (P) = Effort Applied / Development Time [count]

where, KLOC is the estimated number of delivered lines (expressed in thousands ) of code for project. The constants ab, bb, cb and db are given in the following table (note: the values listed below are from the original analysis, with a modern reanalysis producing different values)

Question 11
Which of the following UML 2.0 diagrams capture behavioural aspects of a system?
A
Use Case Diagram, Object Diagram, Activity Diagram, and State Machine Diagram
B
Use Case Diagram, Activity Diagram, and State Machine Diagram
C
Object Diagram, Communication Diagram, Timing Diagram, and Interaction diagram
D
Object Diagram, Composite Structure Diagram, Package Diagram, and Deployment Diagram
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       ISRO-2017 May
Question 11 Explanation: 
UML diagram are two types:

Question 12
Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is a methodology to
A
develop and refine an organization’s software development process
B
develop the software
C
test the software
D
All of the above
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       ISRO-2017 May
Question 12 Explanation: 
CMM stands for Capability Maturity Model is a process model which specifies the process improvement approach in software development.
CMM levels:
1. Initial
2. Repeatable
3. Defined
4. Managed
5. Optimizing
Question 13
Which of the following is not a life cycle model?
A
Spiral model
B
Prototyping model
C
Waterfall model
D
Capability maturity model
       Software-Engineering       Software-process-models       ISRO-2017 May
Question 13 Explanation: 
→ SDLC is a process followed for a software project, within a software organization. It consists of a detailed plan describing how to develop, maintain, replace and alter or enhance specific software. The life cycle defines a methodology for improving the quality of software and the overall development process.
1. Waterfall model
2. Iterative model
3. Spiral model
4. Incremental model
5. Modified waterfall model
6. RAD model
7. Agile model
→ CMM stands for Capability Maturity Model is a process model which specifies the process improvement approach in software development.
Question 14
The cyclomatic complexity of each of the modules X and Y shown below is 10. What is the cyclomatic complexity of the sequential integration shown on the right-hand side?
A
21
B
19
C
20
D
10
       Software-Engineering       Software-quality       ISRO-2017 May
Question 14 Explanation: 
Cyclomatic complexity uses 3 formulas
1. Number of regions + 1
2. Predicate + 1
3. Edges-Vertices+2

But here they already given complexity. So each module complexity is 10.
There are 2 modules named A and B having decision points are (10-1)+(10-1).
Cyclomatic complexity of the sequential integration is = Number of decision points + 1
= 18+ 1
= 19
Question 15
In software maintenance tackling the changes in the hardware or software environment where the software works, is
A
Corrective maintenance
B
Perfective maintenance
C
Adaptive maintenance
D
Preventive maintenance
       Software-Engineering       Software-configuration-management       ISRO-2017 May
Question 15 Explanation: 
Software Maintenance activities into four classes:
1. Adaptive – modifying the system to cope with changes in the software environment
2. Perfective – implementing new or changed user requirements which concern functional enhancements to the software
3. Corrective – diagnosing and fixing errors, possibly ones found by users
4. Preventive – increasing software maintainability or reliability to prevent problems in the future
Question 16
In the context of modular software design, which one of the following combinations is desirable?
A
High cohesion and high coupling
B
High cohesion and low coupling
C
Low cohesion and high coupling
D
Low cohesion and low coupling
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       ISRO-2017 May
Question 16 Explanation: 
→ Cohesion is a measure of internal strength within a module, whereas coupling is a measure of inter dependency among the modules.
→ So in the context of modular software design, there should be high cohesion and low coupling.
Question 17
The extent to which the software can continue to operate correctly despite the introduction of invalid inputs is called as
A
Reliability
B
Robustness
C
Fault tolerance
D
Portability
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       ISRO-2016
Question 17 Explanation: 
→ The extent to which the s/w can continue to operate correctly despite the introduction of invalid inputs is called as robustness
→ Robustness is the ability of a computer system to cope with errors during execution and cope with erroneous input
Question 18
Which one of the following is a functional requirement
A
Maintainability
B
Portability
C
Robustness
D
None of the mentioned
       Software-Engineering       Software-requirements       ISRO-2016
Question 18 Explanation: 
Functional Requirements include:
1. Descriptions of data to be entered into the system
2. Descriptions of operations performed by each screen
3. Descriptions of work-flows performed by the system
4. Descriptions of system reports or other outputs

→ The Functional Requirements Specification is designed to be read by a general audience. Readers should understand the system, but no particular technical knowledge should be required to understand the document.

Examples:
1. Interface requirements
2. Business requirements
3. Regulatory/Compliance requirements
4. Security requirements
Question 19
Configuration management is not concerned with
A
controlling changes to the source code
B
choice of a hardware configuration for an application
C
controlling documentation changes
D
maintaining versions of software
       Software-Engineering       Software-configuration-management       ISRO-2016
Question 19 Explanation: 
Configuration management is not concerned with choice of hardware configuration for an application.
Question 20
A company needs to develop a strategy for software product development for which it has a choice of two programming languages L1 and L2. The number of lines of code (LOC) developed using L2 is estimated to be twice the LOC developed with Ll. The product will have to be maintained for five years. Various parameters for the company are given in the table below.

Total cost of the project includes cost of development and maintenance.
What is the LOC for L1 for which the cost of the project using L1 is equal to the cost of the project using L2?
A
10,000
B
5,000
C
7,500
D
75,000
       Software-Engineering       LOC       ISRO-2016
Question 20 Explanation: 
LOC L1 = X
L2 = 2X
Total cost of project: x/1000*1000000+5+100000
=2x/10000*750000+50000*5
=100×+500000
=150×+250000
⟹50×=500000-250000
Question 21
A company needs to develop digital signal processing software for one of its newest inventions. The software is expected to have 20000 lines of code. The company needs to determine the effort in person-months needed to develop this software using the basic COCOMO model. The multiplicative factor for this model is given as 2.2 for the software development on embedded systems, while the exponentiation factor is given as 1.50. What is the estimated effort in person-months?
A
196.77
B
206.56
C
199.56
D
210.68
       Software-Engineering       COCOMO-Model       ISRO-2016
Question 21 Explanation: 
Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO) formula for effort applied is
Effort Applied (E) = ab(KLOC)bb [ person-months ]
= 2.2 x(20)1.50
= 2.2 x 89.44
= 196.77
Question 22
In the Spiral model of software development, the primary determinant in selecting activities in each iteration is
A
Iteration size
B
Cost
C
Adopted process such as Rational Unified Process or Extreme Programming
D
Risk
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       ISRO-2016
Question 22 Explanation: 
→ In the Spiral model of software development, the primary determinant in selecting activities in each iteration is risk handling
→ The spiral model is a risk-driven software development process model. Based on the unique risk patterns of a given project, the spiral model guides a team to adopt elements of one or more process models, such as incremental, waterfall, or evolutionary prototyping.
Question 23
Activities which ensure that the software that has been built, is traceable to customer requirement is covered as part of
A
Verification
B
Validation
C
Maintenance
D
Modeling
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       ISRO CS 2009
Question 23 Explanation: 
Verification is the process of evaluating products of a development phase to find out whether they meet the specified requirements.
Validation is the process of evaluating software at the end of the development process to determine whether software meets the customer expectations and requirements.
Question 24
A testing method which is normally used as the acceptance test for a software system, is
A
Regression Testing
B
Integration Testing
C
Unit Testing
D
System Testing
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       ISRO CS 2009
Question 24 Explanation: 
System testing is the type of testing to check the behaviour of a complete and fully where to buy generic modafinil integrated software product based on the software requirements specification (SRS) document. The main focus of this testing is to evaluate Business / Functional / End-user requirements.
Regression testing is type of testing carried out to ensure that changes made in the fixes or any enhancement changes are not impacting the previously working functionality. It is executed after enhancement or defect fixes in the software or its environment.
A Unit testing is a Level of Testing where smallest part of individual unit / component (called unit) is tested to determine if they are fit for use
Question 25
A context model of a software system can be shown by drawing a
A
LEVEL-0 DFD
B
LEVEL-1 DFD
C
LEVEL-2 DFD
D
LEVEL-3 DFD
       Software-Engineering       DFD       ISRO CS 2011
Question 25 Explanation: 
Explanation:
1. A data flow diagram (DFD) illustrates how data is processed by a system in terms of inputs and outputs. As its name indicates its focus is on the flow of information, where data comes from, where it goes and how it gets stored.
2. Context Diagram. A context diagram is a top level (also known as "Level 0") data flow diagram. It only contains one process node ("Process 0") that generalizes the function of the entire system in relationship to external entities.
Question 26
Black Box Software Testing method focuses on the
A
Boundary condition of the software
B
Control structure of the software
C
Functional requirement of the software
D
Independent paths of the software
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       ISRO CS 2011
Question 26 Explanation: 
Black box testing, which is also known as behavioral, opaque-box, closed-box, specification-based or eye-to-eye testing, is a Software Testing method that analyses the functionality of a software/application without knowing much about the internal structure/design of the item that is being tested and compares the input value with the output value
Question 27
Warnier Diagram enables the analyst to represent
A
Warnier Diagram enables the analyst to represent
B
Information Hierarchy
C
Data Flow
D
State Transition
       Software-Engineering       Warnier-diagram       ISRO CS 2011
Question 27 Explanation: 
A Warnier/Orr diagram (also known as a logical construction of a program/system) is a kind of hierarchical flow chart that allows the description of the organization of data and procedures.
This method aids the design of program structures by identifying the output and processing results and then working backwards to determine the steps and combinations of input needed to produce them.
The simple graphic method used in Warnier/Orr diagrams makes the levels in the system evident and the movement of the data between them vivid.
Question 28
The Cyclomatic Complexity metric V(G) of the following control flow graph
A
3
B
4
C
5
D
6
       Software-Engineering       Cyclomatic-complexity       ISRO CS 2011
Question 28 Explanation: 
Cyclomatic complexity is the measurement of a source code complexity.
It is calculated through a control flow graph which is developed on the basis of source code which measures the number of linearly-independent paths through a program module
The Cyclomatic Complexity of a graph = E − N + 2*P, where
where,
E = represents a number of edges in the control flow graph.
N = represents a number of nodes in the control flow graph.
P = represents a number of nodes that have exit points in the control flow graph.
From the given graph has: E = 7, N = 5 and P = 1
Cyclomatic Complexity = 7 – 5 + 2(1) = 4
Question 29
If a program P calls two subprograms P1 and P2 and P1 can fail 50% of the time and P2 can fail 40% of the time, what is the failure rate of program P
A
50%
B
60%
C
70%
D
10%
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       ISRO CS 2013
Question 29 Explanation: 
Method-1:
Based upon the success rate, we can find the solution.
Success rate=(1-failure rate)
Given failure rates are P1=50% P2=40%
P1 success rate= (1-failure rate)
= (1-0.5)
= 0.5
P2 success rate= (1-failure rate)
= (1-0.4)
= 0.6
Success rate of both P1 and P2 = 0.5 *0.6
= 0.3
Failure rate of both P1 and P2
= 1 - success rate
= 1 - 0.3
= 0.7 (or) 70%
Method-2:
Based upon the failure rate we can find the solution.
Program P is divided into two subprograms.
We can calculate total failure rate by considering the two subprograms
P(P1 U P2)= P1+P2-(P1*P2) /*Check note point */
= (50/100)+(40/100)-(50*40)/100
=90-20
=70%
Note: Failure of P1 + Failure of P2 - (Failure of P1 ∩ Failure of P2)
Question 30
Which of the following testing methods uses fault simulation technique?
A
unit testing
B
beta testing
C
stress testing
D
mutation testing
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       ISRO CS 2013
Question 30 Explanation: 
Mutation testing is used to design new software tests and evaluate the quality of existing software tests.
The purpose of mutation testing is to evaluate the effectiveness of the test cases to detect errors in the event of modification or changes in the program code
Question 31
What is the cyclomatic complexity of a module which has seventeen edges and thirteen nodes?
A
4
B
5
C
6
D
7
       Software-Engineering       Cyclomatic-complexity       ISRO CS 2013
Question 31 Explanation: 
From the given question,
The number of edges are (E)=17
The number of Nodes are (N)=13
We can calculate the cyclomatic complexity of a module by using the formulae E – N + 2
Substitute the given values in the above formulae.
Cyclomatic complexity = 17 – 13 + 2 = 6
Question 32
Which of the following types of coupling has the weakest coupling?
A
Pathological coupling
B
Control coupling
C
Data coupling
D
Message coupling
       Software-Engineering       Coupling       ISRO CS 2013
Question 32 Explanation: 
Coupling is the degree of interdependence between software modules; a measure of how closely connected two routines or modules are the strength of the relationships between module
Coupling can be "low" (also "loose" and "weak") or "high" (also "tight" and "strong").
Some types of coupling, in order of highest to lowest coupling, are as follows:
Content coupling (high)
Content coupling is said to occur when one module uses the code of other module, for instance a branch. This violates information hiding - a basic design concept.
Common coupling
Common coupling is said to occur when several modules have access to the same global data. But it can lead to uncontrolled error propagation and unforeseen side-effects when changes are made.
External coupling
External coupling occurs when two modules share an externally imposed data format, communication protocol, or device interface. This is basically related to the communication to external tools and devices.
Control coupling
Control coupling is one module controlling the flow of another, by passing it information on what to do (e.g., passing a what-to-do flag).
Stamp coupling (data-structured coupling)
Stamp coupling occurs when modules share a composite data structure and use only parts of it, possibly different parts
Data coupling
Data coupling occurs when modules share data through, for example, parameters. Each datum is an elementary piece, and these are the only data shared (e.g., passing an integer to a function that computes a square root).
Question 33
Consider the following pseudo code
while (m < n)
if (x > y ) and (a < b) then
a=a+1
y=y-1
end if
m=m+1
end while
What is cyclomatic complexity of the above pseudo code?
A
2
B
3
C
4
D
5
       Software-Engineering       Software-configuration-management       ISRO CS 2014
Question 33 Explanation: 
Finding cyclomatic complexity using 3 formulas
1. E-V+2
2. P+1
3. No.of Regions
According to above code segment.
→ Edges-Vertices+2
= 8-6+2 = 4
→ Total number of regions = 4
→ Predicates+1 = 3+1 = 4
Note: We can use any one of above formulas.
Question 34
Which of the following is not a maturity level as per the Capability Maturity Model?
A
Initial
B
Measurable
C
Repeatable
D
Optimized
       Software-Engineering       ISRO CS 2014
Question 34 Explanation: 
Capability Maturity Model levels
1. Initial
2. Repeatable
3. Defined
4. Managed
5. Optimized
Question 35
The test suite (set of test input) used to perform unit testing on module could cover 70% of the code. What is the reliability of the module if the probability of success is 0.95 during testing?
A
0.665 to 0.95
B
At the most 0.665
C
At the most 0.95
D
At least 0.665
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       ISRO CS 2014
Question 35 Explanation: 
Software Reliability is the probability of failure-free software operation for a specified period of time in a specified environment.
From the given question the module code covers 70% of the entire code, so we need to check with reliability for that module only.
Reliability = percentage of code coverage * probability of success = 0.7 * 0.95 = 0.665.
Probability of success is at most 0.665 %
Question 36
For a software project, the spiral model was employed. When will the spiral stop?
A
When the software product is retired
B
When the software product is released after Beta testing
C
When the risk analysis is completed
D
After completing five loops
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       ISRO CS 2014
Question 36 Explanation: 
→ The spiral model is a risk-driven software development process model.
→ Based on the unique risk patterns of a given project, the spiral model guides a team to adopt elements of one or more process models, such as incremental, waterfall, or evolutionary prototyping.
→ Spiral model stop, when the software product is retired
Question 37

Match the following in Software Engineering :

        List-I                            List-II
(a) Product Complexity          (i) Software Requirements Definition
(b) Structured System Analysis (ii) Software Design
(c) Coupling and Cohesion     (iii) Validation Technique
(d) Symbolic Execution         (iv) Software Cost Estimation

A
(a)-(ii), (b)-(iii), (c)-(iv), (d)-(i)
B
(a)-(iii), (b)- (i), (c)-(iv), (d)-(ii)
C
(a)-(iv), (b)- (i), (c)-(ii), (d)-(iii)
D
(a)-(iii), (b)- (iv), (c)-(i), (d)-(ii)
       Software-Engineering       Match-the-following       UGC-NET JUNE Paper-2
Question 37 Explanation: 
→ Coupling and Cohesion are used in software design. Cohesion measures strength of a module while coupling measures interdependency between modules.
→ Software cost estimation must be done more diligently throughout the project life cycle so that in the future there are fewer surprises and unforeseen delays in the release of a product.
→ Validation Technique → Symbolic Execution
→ Software Requirements Definition → Structured System Analysis
Question 38

Which one of the following is not typically provided by Source Code Management Software ?

A
Synchronisation
B
Versioning and Revision history
C
Syntax highlighting
D
Project forking
       Software-Engineering       Software-process-models       UGC-NET JUNE Paper-2
Question 38 Explanation: 
Source Code Management Software is the management of changes to documents, computer programs, large web sites, and other collections of information. Changes are usually identified by a number or letter code, termed the "revision number", "revision level", or simply "revision".
→ Source Code Management Software includes
1. Synchronisation
2. Versioning and Revision history
3. Project forking
Question 39

A software system crashed 20 times in the year 2017 and for each crash, it took 2 minutes to restart. Approximately, what was the software availability in that year ?

A
96.9924%
B
97.9924%
C
98.9924%
D
99.9924%
       Software-Engineering       Estimation-and-scheduling-of-software-projects       UGC-NET JUNE Paper-2
Question 39 Explanation: 
Software availability:
It is a software used to ensure that systems are running and available most of the time. High availability is a high percentage of time that the system is functioning. It can be formally defined as (1 – (down time/ total time))*100%. Although the minimum required availability varies by task, systems typically attempt to achieve 99.999% (5-nines) availability. This characteristic is weaker than fault tolerance, which typically seeks to provide 100% availability, albeit with significant price and performance penalties.
Given data,
- Software crashed 20 times in the year 2017
- Each crash = 2 minutes to restart
- Software availability = ?
1 year = 365 days = 365 * 1440 minutes = 525600 minutes
→ Crash time = 20 * 2
= 40 minutes
→ Software availability = (525600 - 40) / 525600
= 0.999924
= (0.999924 * 100)
= 99.9924 %
Question 40

Match the 5 CMM Maturity levels/CMMI staged representations in List-I with their characterizations in List-II :

    List-I                                List-II
(a) Initial        (i) Processes are improved quantitatively and continually. 
(b) Repeatable    (ii) The plan for a project comes from a template for plans. 
(c) Defined      (iii) The plan uses processes that can be measured quantitatively. 
(d) Managed       (iv) There may not exist a plan or it may be abandoned. 
(e) Optimizing     (v) There’s a plan and people stick to it.
Code :  
A
(a)-(iv), (b)-(v), (c)-(i), (d)-(iii), (e)-(ii)
B
(a)-(i), (b)-(ii), (c)-(iv), (d)-(v), (e)-(iii)
C
(a)-(v), (b)-(iv), (c)-(ii), (d)-(iii), (e)-(i)
D
(a)- (iv), (b)-(v), (c)-(ii), (d)-(iii), (e)-(i)
       Software-Engineering       CMMI       UGC-NET JUNE Paper-2
Question 40 Explanation: 
Initial Stage: There may not exist a plan or it may be abandoned.
Repeatable: There’s a plan and people stick to it.
Defined: The plan for a project comes from a template for plans.
Managed: The plan uses processes that can be measured quantitatively.
Optimizing: Processes are improved quantitatively and continually.
Question 41

Coupling is a measure of the strength of the interconnections between software modules. Which of the following are correct statements with respect to module coupling ?

    P : Common coupling occurs when one module controls the flow of another module by passing it information on what to do.
    Q : In data coupling, the complete data structure is passed from one module to another through parameters.
    R : Stamp coupling occurs when modules share a composite data structure and use only parts of it.
Code :
A
P and Q only
B
P and R only
C
Q and R only
D
All of P, Q and R
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC-NET JUNE Paper-2
Question 41 Explanation: 
Common Coupling: Common coupling occurs if two modules share same global data.
Data Coupling: Data coupling occurs when two modules communicate using elementary data items that are passed as parameters between two modules.
Stamp Coupling: Stamp coupling occurs if two modules communicate using composite items such as records in Pascal or structure in C.
Question 42

A software design pattern often used to restrict access to an object is :

A
adapter
B
decorator
C
delegation
D
proxy
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC-NET JUNE Paper-2
Question 42 Explanation: 
Proxy pattern: A class functioning as an interface to another thing. In the proxy, extra functionality can be provided, for example caching when operations on the real object are resource intensive, or checking preconditions before operations on the real object are invoked.
→ For the client, usage of a proxy object is similar to using the real object, because both implement the same interface.
→ Proxy pattern solve the access to an object should be controlled and functionality should be provided when accessing an object.
→ When accessing sensitive objects, for example, it should be possible to check that clients have the needed access rights.
Question 43

Reasons to re-engineer a software include :

    P : Allow legacy software to quickly adapt to the changing requirements
    Q : Upgrade to newer technologies/platforms/paradigm (for example, object-oriented)
    R : Improve software maintainability
    S : Allow change in the functionality and architecture of the software
Code :
A
P, R and S only
B
P and R only
C
P, Q and S only
D
P, Q and R only
       Software-Engineering       Software-configuration-management       UGC-NET JUNE Paper-2
Question 43 Explanation: 
→ Software re-engineering is the examination and alteration of a system to reconstitute it in a new form. It is done to improve the maintainability of the software.
→ Software reengineering encompasses inventory analysis, document restructuring, reverse engineering, program and data restructuring, and forward engineering. The intent of these activities is to create versions of existing programs that exhibit higher quality and better Maintainability.
A software reengineering process model:
Question 44

Which of the following is not a key strategy followed by the clean room approach to software development ?

A
Formal specification
B
Dynamic verification
C
Incremental development
D
Statistical testing of the system
       Software-Engineering       Software-configuration-management       UGC-NET JUNE Paper-2
Question 44 Explanation: 
The basic principles of the cleanroom process are
1. Software development based on formal methods:
Software tool support based on some mathematical formalism includes model checking, process algebras, and Petri nets. The Box Structure Method might be one such means of specifying and designing a software product. Verification that the design correctly implements the specification is performed through team review, often with software tool support.
2. Incremental implementation under statistical quality control:
Cleanroom development uses an iterative approach, in which the product is developed in increments that gradually increase the implemented functionality. The quality of each increment is measured against pre-established standards to verify that the development process is proceeding acceptably. A failure to meet quality standards results in the cessation of testing for the current increment, and a return to the design phase.
3. Statistically sound testing:
Software testing in the cleanroom process is carried out as a statistical experiment. Based on the formal specification, a representative subset of software input/output trajectories is selected and tested. This sample is then statistically analyzed to produce an estimate of the reliability of the software, and a level of confidence in that estimate.
Question 45

Which of the following statements is/are True ?

    P : Refactoring is the process of changing a software system in such a way that it does not alter the external behavior of the code yet improves the internal architecture.
    Q : An example of refactoring is adding new features to satisfy a customer requirement discovered after a project is shipped.
Code :
A
P only
B
Q only
C
Both P and Q
D
Neither P nor Q
       Software-Engineering       Software-quality       UGC-NET JUNE Paper-2
Question 45 Explanation: 
→ Refactoring allows a software engineer to improve the internal structure of a design (or source code) without changing its external functionality or behavior of the code yet improves the internal structure. In essence, refactoring can be used to improve the efficiency, readability, or performance of a design or the code that implements a design.
→ It is a disciplined way to clean up code [and modify/simplify the internal design] that minimizes the chances of introducing bugs. In essence, when you refactor you are improving the design of the code after it has been written.
Note:
It won’t add any new featuring to satisfy a customer requirement. So, statement Q is false.
Question 46
RAD software process model stands for:
A
Rapid Application Development
B
Rapid Application Design
C
Relative Application Development
D
Recent Application Development
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       Nielit Scientist-B IT 4-12-2016
Question 46 Explanation: 
Rapid Application Development focuses on gathering customer requirements through workshops or focus groups, early testing of the prototypes by the customer using iterative concept, reuse of the existing prototypes (components), continuous integration and rapid delivery.
Question 47
Software projects management comprises of a number of activities, which contains:
A
Project planning
B
Project estimation
C
Scope management
D
All mentioned above
       Software-Engineering       Software-configuration-management       Nielit Scientist-B IT 4-12-2016
Question 47 Explanation: 
Software project management is an art and science of planning and leading software projects. It is a sub-discipline of project management in which software projects are planned, implemented, monitored and controlled.
Question 48
What are the characteristics of software?
A
Software is developed or engineered;It is not manufacturing in the classical sense
B
Software can be custom built or custom build
C
Software doesn't "wear out"
D
All mentioned above
       Software-Engineering       Software-requirements       Nielit Scientist-B IT 4-12-2016
Question 48 Explanation: 
Software characteristics are
● Functionality: Refers to the degree of performance of the software against its intended purpose.
● Reliability: Refers to the ability of the software to provide desired functionality under the given conditions.
● Usability: Refers to the extent to which the software can be used with ease.
● Efficiency: Refers to the ability of the software to use system resources in the most effective and efficient manner.
● Maintainability: Refers to the ease with which the modifications can be made in a software system to extend its functionality, improve its performance, or correct errors.
● Portability: Refers to the ease with which software developers can transfer software from one platform to another, without (or with minimum) changes
● Robustness refers to the degree to which the software can keep on functioning in spite of being provided with invalid data
● integrity refers to the degree to which unauthorized access to the software or data can be prevented
Question 49
The advantage of better testing in software development is in
A
Waterfall model
B
Prototyping
C
Iterative
D
All of these
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       Nielit Scientist-C 2016 march
Question 49 Explanation: 
● ​ Iterative development was created as a response to inefficiencies and problems found in the waterfall model. A simplified version of a typical iteration cycle in agile project management.
● The basic idea behind this method is to develop a system through repeated cycles (iterative) and in smaller portions at a time (incremental), allowing software developers to take advantage of what was learned during development of earlier parts or versions of the system. Learning comes from both the development and use of the system, where possible key steps in the process start with a simple implementation of a subset of the software requirements and iteratively enhance the evolving versions until the full system is implemented. At each iteration, design modifications are made and new functional capabilities are added.
Question 50

The Software Requirement Specification(SRS) is said to be _________ if and only if no subset of individual requirements described in it conflict with each other.

A
Correct
B
Consistent
C
Unambiguous
D
Verifiable
       Software-Engineering       Software-requirement-specification       UGC-NET DEC Paper-2
Question 50 Explanation: 
Consistent :
The Software Requirement Specification(SRS) is said to be Consistent if and only if no subset of individual requirements described in it conflict with each other.
Unambiguous :
SRS said to be unambiguous if there exist no word that have more than one meaning and this will not confuse testers to get the exact reference.
Correct :
SRS is said to be correct if it is error free and accurate.
Question 51

Which of the following statements is/are false?

    P: The clean-room strategy to software engineering is based on the incremental software process model.
    Q: The clean-room strategy to software engineering is one of the ways to overcome “unconscious” copying of copyrighted code.

Choose the correct answer from the code given below:

Code:
A
Neither P and Q
B
P only
C
Both P and Q
D
Q only
       Software-Engineering       Software-process-models       UGC-NET DEC Paper-2
Question 51 Explanation: 
Clean-room Strategy:
Cleanroom software engineering (CSE) is a process model that removes defects before they can precipitate serious hazards. It is a team-oriented, theory based software, which is developed using the formal methods, correctness verification and Statistical Quality Assurance (SQA).
→ Clean room management is based on the incremental model of software development, which accumulates into the final product. The approach combines mathematical-based methods of software specification, design and correctness verification with statistical, usage-based testing to certify software fitness for use.
→ The main goal of clean room engineering is to produce zero error-based software by allowing correct designs, which avoid rework.
Question 52
The graph theoretic concept will be useful in software testing is
A
Cyclomatic number
B
Hamiltonian Circuit
C
Eulerian cycle
D
None of these
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       Nielit Scientist-C 2016 march
Question 52 Explanation: 
● Cyclomatic complexity is a software metric used to indicate the complexity of a program.
● It is a quantitative measure of the number of linearly independent paths through a program's source code.
● Cyclomatic complexity is computed using the control flow graph of the program: the nodes of the graph correspond to indivisible groups of commands of a program, and a directed edge connects two nodes if the second command might be executed immediately after the first command.
● Cyclomatic complexity may also be applied to individual functions, modules, methods or classes within a program
Question 53
In testing phase, the effort distribution is upto
A
10%
B
20%
C
40%
D
50%
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       Nielit Scientist-C 2016 march
Question 53 Explanation: 
● Effort estimation is the process of predicting the most realistic amount of effort (expressed in terms of person-hours or money) required to develop or maintain software based on incomplete, uncertain and noisy input.
● Effort estimates may be used as input to project plans, iteration plans, budgets, investment analyses, pricing processes and bidding rounds.
● The strong overconfidence in the accuracy of the effort estimates is illustrated by the finding that, on average, if a software professional is 90% confident or “almost sure” to include the actual effort in a minimum-maximum interval, the observed frequency of including the actual effort is only 60-70%.
● Currently the term “effort estimate” is used to denote as different concepts such as most likely use of effort (modal value), the effort that corresponds to a probability of 50% of not exceeding (median), the planned effort, the budgeted effort or the effort used to propose a bid or price to the client
Question 54
The cyclomatic complexity of each of the modules A and B shown below is 10. what is the cyclomatic complexity of the sequential integration shown on the right hand side?
A
19
B
21
C
20
D
10
       Software-Engineering       COCOMO-Model       Nielit Scientist-B CS 22-07-2017
Question 54 Explanation: 
Cyclomatic complexity is a software metric used to indicate the complexity of a program.
It is a quantitative measure of the number of linearly independent paths through a program's source code.
Cyclomatic Complexity of module = Number of decision points of program + 1
Number of decision points in module-A = 10 - 1 = 9
Number of decision points in module-B = 10 - 1 = 9
Cyclomatic Complexity of the integration(both A and B) = Number of decision points + 1
= (9 + 9) + 1
= 19
Question 55
What is the appropriate pairing items in the two columns listing various activities encountered in a software life cycle?  
A
P-3, Q-2,R-4,S-1
B
P-2,Q-3,R-1,S-4
C
P-3,Q-2,R-1,S-4
D
P-2,Q-3,R-4,S-1
       Software-Engineering       SDLC       Nielit Scientist-B CS 22-07-2017
Question 55 Explanation: 
A requirement is a capability to which a project outcome (product or service) should conform and cover functional and non-functional aspects of a system.
Requirements Capture is the process of analysing and identifying the requirements of a system and often involves a series of facilitated workshops attended by stakeholders of the system.
Software maintenance in software engineering is the modification of a software product after delivery to correct faults, to improve performance or other attributes.
Software design is the process by which an agent creates a specification of a software artifact, intended to accomplish goals, using a set of primitive components and subject to constraints.
Implementation is the realization of an application, or execution of a plan, idea, model, design, specification, standard, algorithm, or policy.
Question 56

Which of the following statements is/are true?

    P: Software Reengineering is preferable for software products having high failure rates, having poor design and/or having poor code structure
    Q: Software Reverse Engineering is the process of analyzing software with the objective of recovering its design and requirement specification.

Choose the correct answer from the code given below:

Code:
A
P only
B
Neither P nor Q
C
Q only
D
Both P and Q
       Software-Engineering       Software-Reengineering       UGC-NET DEC Paper-2
Question 56 Explanation: 
Re-Engineering:
Re-engineering refers to the rewriting the the part or whole system without changing its functionality. Re-Engineering is done for maintaining a system, to make the system compatible with the latest technologies.
Reverse engineering:
It is also called as back engineering which is done to examine the working of a product.
Question 57

Software coupling involves dependencies among pieces of software called modules. Which of the following are correct statements with respect to module coupling?

    P: Common Coupling occurs when two modules share the same global data
    Q: control Coupling occur when modules share a composite data structure and use only part of it.
    R: Content coupling occurs when one module modifies or relies on the internal working of another module.

Choose a correct answer from the code given below:

Code:
A
P and Q only
B
P and R only
C
Q and R only
D
All of P, Q and R
       Software-Engineering       Coupling       UGC-NET DEC Paper-2
Question 57 Explanation: 
Control Coupling : It exists between two modules if data from one module to other is used to direct the order of instruction execution in other module.
Common Coupling : Common coupling take place when two modules share global data.
Content Coupling : Content coupling exists between two modules if their code is shared.
Question 58
A company needs to develop a strategy for software product development for which it has a choice of two programming languages L1 and L2. The number of lines of code (LOC) developed using L2 is estimated to be twice the LOC developed with Ll. The product will have to be maintained for five years. Various parameters for the company are given in the table below

A
4000
B
5000
C
4333
D
4667
       Software-Engineering       LOC       Nielit Scientist-B CS 22-07-2017
Question 58 Explanation: 
Let LOC of L1=x, so LOC of L2=2x
Now,
(x/10000)*1000000 + 5*100000 = (2x/10000)*750000 + 5*50000
Solving for x, we get x =5000
Question 59
A company needs to develop digital signal processing software for one of its newest inventions. The software is expected to have 40000 lines of code. The company needs to determine the effort in person-months needed to develop this software using the basic COCOMO model. The multiplicative factor for this model is given as 2.8 for the software development on embedded systems, while the exponentiation factor is given as 1.20. What is the estimated effort in person-months?
A
234.25
B
932.50
C
287.80
D
122.40
       Software-Engineering       COCOMO-Model       Nielit Scientist-B CS 22-07-2017
Question 59 Explanation: 
The Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO) is an algorithmic software cost estimation model developed by Barry Boehm. The model uses a basic regression formula, with parameters that are derived from historical project data and current project characteristics
In the Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO), following is formula for effort applied
Effort Applied (E) = ab(KLOC)b [ person-months ]
= 2.8 x(40)1.20
= 2.8 x 83.65
= 234.25
Question 60
Which one of the following is NOT desired in a good software requirement specifications(SRS) document?
A
Functional requirements
B
Non Functional requirements
C
Goals of implementation
D
Algorithm for software implementation
       Software-Engineering       Software-requirements       Nielit Scientist-B CS 22-07-2017
Question 60 Explanation: 
The software requirements specification document is a requirements specification for a software system, is a complete description of the behavior of a system to be developed and may include a set of use cases that describe interactions the users will have with the software. In addition it also contains non-functional requirements. Non-functional requirements impose constraints on the design or implementation (such as performance engineering requirements, quality standards, or design constraints)
An SRS document should clearly document the following aspects of a system: Functional Requirements, Non-Functional Requirements and Goals of implementation
Question 61
Bug means
A
A logical error in a program
B
A difficult syntax error in a program
C
Documenting programs using an efficient documentation tool
D
All of the above
       Software-Engineering       Basics       Nielit Scientist-B CS 22-07-2017
Question 61 Explanation: 
A bug is an error in a software program. It may cause a program to unexpectedly quit or behave in an unintended manner. For example, a small bug may cause a button within a program's interface not to respond when you click it. A more serious bug may cause the program to hang or crash due to an infinite calculation or memory leak.
Question 62
In a risk based approach the risks identified mayn’t be used to:
A
Determine the test technique to be employed
B
Determine the extent of testing to be carried out
C
Prioritize testing in an attempt to find critical defects as early as possible
D
Determine the cost of the project
       Software-Engineering       Nielit STA [02-12-2018]
Question 62 Explanation: 
Risk identification is the process of determining risks that could potentially prevent the program, enterprise, or investment from achieving its objectives. It includes documenting and communicating the concern.
Tasks of risk identification:
1. Determine the test technique to be employed
2. Determine the extent of testing to be carried out
3. Prioritize testing in an attempt to find critical defects as early as possible
Question 63
Transformation that moves objects without deformation is called:
A
Rotation
B
Scaling
C
Translation
D
Morphism
       Software-Engineering       Nielit STA [02-12-2018]
Question 63 Explanation: 
→ A translation process moves every point a constant distance in a specified direction. It can be described as a rigid motion.
→ A translation can also be interpreted as the addition of a constant vector to every point, or as shifting the origin of the coordinate system.
Question 64
A DFD that can be used to plan or record the specific makeup of a system is called:
A
Level 0 DFD
B
Level 1 DFD
C
Level 2 DFD
D
Level 3 DFD
       Software-Engineering       Nielit STA [02-12-2018]
Question 64 Explanation: 
→ A level 2 data flow diagram (DFD) offers a more detailed look at the processes that make up an information system than a level 1 DFD does It.
→ Higher level DFDs can be transformed into more specific lower level DFDs with deeper level of understanding unless the desired level of specification is achieved.
Question 65
Match each UML diagram in List-I with appropriate description in List-II
     List-I                                     List-II
(a) State Diagram        (i) Describe how the external entities (people, devices) 
                             can interact with the system
(b) Use case diagram    (ii) Used to describe the static or structural view of a system
(c) Class diagram      (iii) Usd to show the flow of a business process, the steps 
                             of a use case or the logic of an object behaviour
(d) Activity diagram    (iv) Used to describe the dynamic behaviour of objects and could 
                             also be used to describe the entire system behaviour
Code:
A
(a)-(i), (b)-(iv), (c)-(iii), (d)-(ii)
B
(a)-(iv), (b)-(ii), (c)-(i), (d)-(iii)
C
(a)-(iv), (b)-(i), (c)-(ii), (d)-(iii)
D
(a)-(i), (b)-(iv), (c)-(ii), (d)-(iii)
       Software-Engineering       UML       UGC-NET DEC Paper-2
Question 65 Explanation: 
State diagram: Used to describe the dynamic behaviour of objects and could also be used to describe the entire system behaviour. Statechart diagram describes the flow of control from one state to another state. States are defined as a condition in which an object exists and it changes when some event is triggered. The most important purpose of Statechart diagram is to model lifetime of an object from creation to termination.
Use case diagram: Describe how the external entities (people, devices) can interact with the system. Use case diagrams are used to gather the requirements of a system including internal and external influences.
Class diagram: The purpose of class diagram is to model the static view of an application. Class diagrams are the only diagrams which can be directly mapped with object-oriented languages and thus widely used at the time of construction.
Activity diagram: Usd to show the flow of a business process, the steps of a use case or the logic of an object behaviour.
Question 66

A legacy software system has 940 modules. The latest release require that 90 of these modules be changed. In addition, 40 new modules were added and 12 old modules were removed. Compute the software maturity index for the system.

A
0.725
B
0.923
C
0.849
D
0.524
       Software-Engineering       SMI       UGC-NET DEC Paper-2
Question 66 Explanation: 
Software Maturity Index(SMI) = [MT - (Fc + Fa + Fd )] / MT
Where, MT = The number of modules in the current release
Fc = The number of modules in the current release that have been changed
Fa = The number of modules in the current release that have been added
Fd = The number of modules from the preceding release that were deleted in the current release
SMI = [940 - (90 + 40 + 12)]/940
SMI = 0.849
Question 67
In what module multiple instances of execution will yield the same result even if one instance has not terminated before the next one has begun?
A
Non reusable module
B
serially usable
C
Re-enterable module
D
recursive module
       Software-Engineering       Re-enterable-Module       Nielit Scientist-B CS 2016 march
Question 67 Explanation: 
● A reenterable load module does not modify itself. Only one copy of the load module is loaded to satisfy the requirements of any number of tasks in a job step. This means that even though there are several tasks in the job step and each task concurrently uses the load module, the only central storage needed is an area large enough to hold one copy of the load module (plus a few bytes for control blocks).
● A non-reusable module can only be loaded for one task - the code is assumed to be self-modifying (data and code are in the same load module).
● A reusable module can be used by a second task when the first is finished with it (generally the module will acquire its own data space dynamically).
Question 68
According to Brooks, if n is the number of programmers in a project team, then the number of communication path is
A
n(n-1)/2
B
nlogn
C
n
D
n(n+1)/2
       Software-Engineering       SPM       Nielit Scientist-B CS 2016 march
Question 68 Explanation: 
● Brooks' law is an observation about software project management according to which "adding human resources to a late software project makes it later.
● According to Brooks, there is an incremental person who, when added to a project, makes it take more, not less time.
● Brooks introduced a formula to measure the volume of communication within the team. It assumes that every team member needs to communicate with every other team member, in order to perform his or her work.
● Group intercommunication formula measures the number of channels of communication within the project team and can be expressed as n*(n-1)/2, where n is the number of people working on a project.
●With 5 software developers working on a project, the number of channels of communication within the project team becomes 5*(5-1)/2 = 10
● With 10 software developers the number of channels of communication within the project team becomes 10*(10-1)/2 = 45
Question 69
The extent to which the software can control to operate correctly despite the introduction of invalid input is called as
A
reliability
B
robustness
C
fault tolerance
D
Portability
       Software-Engineering       Software-requirements       Nielit Scientist-B CS 2016 march
Question 69 Explanation: 
● Software Reliability is the probability of failure-free software operation for a specified period of time in a specified environment.
● robustness is the ability of a computer system to cope with errors during execution[1and cope with erroneous input
● Fault tolerance is the property that enables a ​ system​ to continue operating properly in the event of the failure of some (one or more faults within) of its components.
● Portability in high-level computer programming is the usability of the same software in different environments.
Question 70
On an average, the programmer months is given by 3.6 * (KLOC)​ 1.2​ . If so, a project requiring one thousand source instructions will require
A
3.6PM
B
0.36PM
C
0.0036PM
D
7.23PM
       Software-Engineering       COCOMO-Model       Nielit Scientist-B CS 2016 march
Question 70 Explanation: 
Given programmer months is given by 3.6 * (KLOC)​ 1.2​ and lines of codes are 1000 =1K.
=3.6(1)​ 1.2​ =3.6 Programmer months.
Question 71
Relation of COCOMO model is
A
E=a*(KLOC)​ 6
B
E=a*(KLOC)​ 5
C
E=a*(KLOC)​ 7
D
E=a*(KLOC)​ 3
E
None of These
       Software-Engineering       COCOMO-Model       Nielit Scientist-B CS 2016 march
Question 71 Explanation: 
The basic COCOMO equations take the form
Effort Applied (E) = a​ b​ (KLOC)​ b b​ [ man-months ]
Development Time (D) = c​ b​ (Effort Applied)​ db​ [months]
People required (P) = Effort Applied / Development Time [count]
Question 72
Dividing a project into segments and smaller units in order to simplify analysis,design and programming efforts is called
A
Modular approach
B
Top down approach
C
Bottom up approach
D
Left right approach
       Software-Engineering       Basics       NieLit STA 2016 March 2016
Question 72 Explanation: 
● Dividing a project into segments and smaller units in order to simplify analysis,design and programming efforts is called Modular approach
● Modular design or “modularity in design”, is a design approach that subdivides a system into smaller parts called modules or skids that can be independently created and then used in different systems.
Question 73

Which of the following is not one of the principles of agile software development method ?

A
Following the plan
B
Embrace change
C
Customer involvement
D
Incremental delivery
       Software-Engineering       Software-Devolepment-method       UGC-NET DEC Paper-2
Question 73 Explanation: 
Agile Software Development is based on twelve principles:
1. Customer satisfaction by early and continuous delivery of valuable software.
2. Welcome changing requirements, even in late development.
3. Deliver working software frequently (weeks rather than months).
4. Close, daily cooperation between business people and developers.
5. Projects are built around motivated individuals, who should be trusted.
6. Face-to-face conversation is the best form of communication (co-location).
7. Working software is the primary measure of progress.
8. Sustainable development, able to maintain a constant pace.
9. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design.
10. Simplicity—the art of maximizing the amount of work not done—is essential.
11. Best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams.
12. Regularly, the team reflects on how to become more effective, and adjusts accordingly.
Question 74

Suppose a cloud contains software stack such as Operating system, Application software, etc. This model is referred as _________ model.

A
SaaS
B
IaaS
C
MaaS
D
PaaS
       Software-Engineering       Cloud       UGC-NET DEC Paper-2
Question 74 Explanation: 
The following explains the 3 services offered by cloud computing for businesses:
1) Platform as a Service (PaaS):
PaaS clouds are created, often times inside IaaS clouds by specialists to deliver the scalability and distribution of any application and to aid make a company’s expenses predictable.
2) Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS):
This service provides business access to essential web infrastructure such as servers, connections, storage space, without the need to buy or manage internet infrastructure themselves.
3) Software as a Service (SaaS):
This service offered by cloud computing is relatively mature and its phrases use those included in cloud computing. Cloud applications permit the cloud to be leveraged for software infrastructure. This reduces the burden of support, maintenance and operations because the application is run on computers that are owned by the vendor.
Question 75

Software products need perfective maintenance for which of the following reasons ?

A
To rectify bugs observed while the system is in use.
B
When the customers need the product to run on new platforms
C
To support the new features that users want it to support
D
To overcome wear and tear caused by the repeated use of the software
       Software-Engineering       Software-Requirements       UGC-NET DEC Paper-2
Question 75 Explanation: 
Maintenance:
Maintenance can be referred as a process of enhancement in the software product according to the changing requirements of user.
4 types of maintenance:
1. Adaptive – modifying the system to cope with changes in the software environment (DBMS, OS).
2. Perfective – implementing new or changed user requirements which concern functional enhancements to the software.
3. Corrective – diagnosing and fixing errors, possibly ones found by users.
4. Preventive – increasing software maintainability or reliability to prevent problems in the future.
Question 76
Which of the following is not defined in a good software requirement specification(SRS) document?
A
Functional requirement
B
Goals of implementation
C
Nonfunctional requirement
D
Algorithm for software implementation
       Software-Engineering       Software-requirements       Nielit Scientist-B CS 4-12-2016
Question 76 Explanation: 
The software requirements specification document is a requirements specification for a software system, is a complete description of the behavior of a system to be developed and may include a set of use cases that describe interactions the users will have with the software. In addition it also contains non-functional requirements. Non-functional requirements impose constraints on the design or implementation (such as performance engineering requirements, quality standards, or design constraints)
An SRS document should clearly document the following aspects of a system: Functional Requirements, Non-Functional Requirements and Goals of implementation
Question 77
Software requirement Specification(SRS) is also known as specification of:
A
White box testing
B
Integrated testing
C
Acceptance testing
D
Black box testing
       Software-Engineering       Software-requirements       Nielit Scientist-B CS 4-12-2016
Question 77 Explanation: 
The system is considered as a black box whose internal details are not known that is, only its visible external (input/output) behavior is documented.
Question 78
Line of code(LOC) of the product comes under which type of measures?
A
Indirect measures
B
Coding
C
Direct measures
D
none of the above
       Software-Engineering       LOC       Nielit Scientist-B CS 4-12-2016
Question 78 Explanation: 
Source lines of code (SLOC), also known as lines of code (LOC), is a software metric used to measure the size of a computer program by counting the number of lines in the text of the program's source code. SLOC is typically used to predict the amount of effort that will be required to develop a program, as well as to estimate programming productivity or maintainability once the software is produced.
→ It comes under direct measures.
Question 79
What is the testing to ensure the WebApp property interfaces with other applications or databases?
A
Compatibility
B
Interoperability
C
Performance
D
Security
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       Nielit Scientist-B CS 4-12-2016
Question 79 Explanation: 
● Compatibility Testing is a type of Software testing to check whether your software is capable of running on different hardware, operating systems, applications, network environments or Mobile devices.
● Interoperability testing is defined as a software testing type, that checks whether software can interoperate with other software component, software or systems.
● In other words, interoperability testing means to prove that end-to-end functionality between two communicating systems is as required by the standard on which those systems are based.
● Performance testing is in general, a testing practice performed to determine how a system performs in terms of responsiveness and stability under a particular workload.
Question 80
What is described by means DFDs as studied earlier and represented in algebraic form?
A
Data flow
B
Data storage
C
Data structures
D
Data elements
       Software-Engineering       DFD       Nielit Scientist-B CS 4-12-2016
Question 80 Explanation: 
● A data flow diagram (DFD) is a way of representing a flow of a data of a process or a system (usually an information system)
● The DFD also provides information about the outputs and inputs of each entity and the process itself.
● A data flow diagram has no control flow, there are no decision rules and no loops. Specific operations based on the data can be represented by a flowchart.
Question 81
The coupling between different modules of a software is categorized as follows:
I. Content coupling
II.Common coupling
III.Control coupling
IV.Stamp Coupling
V.Data Coupling
Coupling between modules can be ranked in the order of strongest(lease desirable) to weakes(most desirable) as follows:
A
I-II-III-IV-V
B
V-IV-III-II-I
C
I-III-V-II-IV
D
IV-II-V-III-I
       Software-Engineering       Coupling-and-Cohesion       Nielit Scientist-B IT 22-07-2017
Question 81 Explanation: 
One of the most widely used for software and systems is Myers’ classification, which defines seven levels of coupling, from tightest to loosest:
● Content coupling - modules rely on each others’ internal data or internal organization
● Common coupling - modules share the same global data
● External coupling - modules share an externally imposed data format, communication protocol or device interface
● Control coupling - one module controls the flow of another, such as by passing it a flag or other information
● Stamp coupling - modules share a composite data structure but use different parts of it
● Data coupling - modules share data through parameters, such as in a subroutine call
● Message coupling - modules communicate by passing messages
Question 82
Which of the following statements are TRUE?
I. The context diagram should be identified clearly at all levels of DFDs
II.Control information should not be represented in a DFD
III. Control information should not be represented in a DFD
IV. A data store can be connected either to another datastore or to an external entity.
A
II and IV
B
II and III
C
I and III
D
I,II and III
       Software-Engineering       DFD       Nielit Scientist-B IT 22-07-2017
Question 82 Explanation: 
● A system context diagram (SCD) in engineering is a diagram that defines the boundary between the system, or part of a system, and its environment, showing the entities that interact with it.This diagram is a high level view of a system. It is similar to a block diagram.
● A data flow diagram (DFD) is a way of representing a flow of a data of a process or a system (usually an information system) The DFD also provides information about the outputs and inputs of each entity and the process itself. A data flow diagram has no control flow, there are no decision rules and no loops. Specific operations based on the data can be represented by a flowchart.
Question 83
The following program is to be tested for statement coverage:
begin
if(a==b)
{
S1;
exit;
}
else if (c==d)
{
S2;
}
else
{
S3;
Exit;
}
S4;
end
The test cases T1,T2,T3 and T4 given below are expressed in terms of the properties satisfied by the values of variables a,b,c and d. The exact values are not given
T1:a,b,c and d are all equal
T1:a,b,c and d are all distinct
T3:a=b and c!=d
T4:a!b and c=d
Which of the test suites given below ensures coverage of statements S1,S2,S3 and S4?
A
T1,T2,T3
B
T2,T4
C
T3,T4
D
T1,T2,T4
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       Nielit Scientist-B IT 22-07-2017
Question 83 Explanation: 
The test cases T1 covers S1 ,T2 covers S3 and T4 covers S2, S4.
Question 84
The Function Points(FP) calculated for software projects are often used to obtain an estimate of Lines of code(LOC) required for that project. Which of the following statements is FALSE in this context?
A
The relationship between FP and LOC depends on the programming language used to implement the software
B
LOC requirement for an assembly language implementation will be more for a given FP value, than LOC for implementation in COBOL.
C
On an average, one LOC of C++ provides approximately 1.6 times the functionality of a single LOC of FORTRAN
D
FP and LOC are not related to each other
       Software-Engineering       Functional-Points       Nielit Scientist-B IT 22-07-2017
Question 84 Explanation: 
● A function point (FP) is a component of software development which helps to approximate the cost of development early in the process.
● A function point calculates software size with the help of logical design and performance of functions as per user requirements.
● “Lines of code” (LOC) is a metric generally used to evaluate a software program or codebase according to its size. It is a general identifier taken by adding up the number of lines of code used to write a program
Question 85
The availability of complex software is 90% its Mean Time Between Failure(MTBF) is 200 days. Because of the critical nature of the usage, the organization deploying the software further enhanced it to obtain an availability of 95%. In the process, the Mean Time To Repair(MTTR) increased by 5 days. What is the MTBF of the enhanced software?(choose the nearest option)
A
205 days
B
300 days
C
500 days
D
700 days
       Software-Engineering       Software-quality       Nielit Scientist-B IT 22-07-2017
Question 85 Explanation: 
Case-1:Availability of complex software =90% =0.9
Mean Time Between Failure(MTBF)=200
MTTR =?(we need to find )
Case-2:After enhancement modified ,availability= 95%=0.95,For this case,Mean Time To Repair(MTTR) increased by 5 days.
MTBF=?(we need to find )
Availability = MTBF/(MTBF + MTTR)
Case-1:
By substituting option-1 value, 0.9 = 200/(200 + MTTR) then
MTTR= 22.22
Case 2 :0.95 = MTBF/( MTBF+22.22+5)
MTBF= 517.18
Question 86
Alpha and Beta testing are forms of
A
Acceptance testing
B
Integration testing
C
System testing
D
Unit testing
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       ISRO CS 2015
Question 86 Explanation: 
Acceptance testing can mean one of two things:
A smoke test is used as a build acceptance test prior to further testing, e.g., before integration or regression.
Acceptance testing performed by the customer, often in their lab environment on their own hardware, is known as user acceptance testing (UAT). Acceptance testing may be performed as part of the hand-off process between any two phases of development.
Alpha testing:
Alpha testing is simulated or actual operational testing by potential users/customers or an independent test team at the developers' site
. Alpha testing is often employed for off-the-shelf software as a form of internal acceptance testing before the software goes to beta testing.
Beta testing
Beta testing comes after alpha testing and can be considered a form of external user acceptance testing. Versions of the software, known as beta versions, are released to a limited audience outside of the programming team known as beta testers.
The software is released to groups of people so that further testing can ensure the product has few faults or bugs. Beta versions can be made available to the open public to increase the feedback field to a maximal number of future users and to deliver value earlier, for an extended or even indefinite period of time (perpetual beta).
Question 87
If in a software project the number of user input, user output, enquiries, files and external interfaces are (15, 50, 24, 12, 8), respectively, with complexity average weighting factor.
The productivity if effort = 70 percent-month is
A
110.54
B
408.74
C
304.78
D
220.14
       Software-Engineering       Software-quality       ISRO CS 2015
Question 87 Explanation: 

Given in question, average weighting factor.
=(External Inputs(EI)*4) + (External Output(EO) * 5) + (External Inquiries(EQ) * 4) + (External logical files(ILF) * 10) + (External Interface file(EIF) * 7)
=(15*4 + 50*5 + 24*4 +12*10 + 8*7
= 582
And, productivity month is 70%
=582*0.7
=407.4
Question 88

Which of the following is a white box testing technique?

A
Data flow testing
B
Equivalence class testing
C
Cause effect graphing
D
State based testing
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       JT(IT) 2018 PART-B Computer Science
Question 88 Explanation: 
White box testing techniques analyze the internal structures the used data structures, internal design, code structure and the working of the software rather than just the functionality as in black box testing. It is also called glass box testing or clear box testing or structural testing.
White box testing techniques
1. Statement coverage
2. Branch CoverAge
3. Condition Coverage
4. Multiple Condition Coverage
5. Basis Path Testing
6. Flow graph notation
7. Loop Testing
Question 89
Which of the following is a desirable property of module?
A
Independency
B
low cohesiveness
C
High coupling
D
Multifunctional
       Software-Engineering       Software-process-models       Nielit Scientific Assistance IT 15-10-2017
Question 89 Explanation: 
The goal of software engineering is high cohesion and low coupling. The desirable property of module is independency.
Question 90
A program p calls two subprograms P1 and P2. P1 can fail 50% time and P2 can fail 40% times. The program P can fail
A
50%
B
10%
C
60%
D
70%
       Software-Engineering       Software-Reliabiliy       Nielit Scientific Assistance IT 15-10-2017
Question 90 Explanation: 
Program P fails when either P1 fails or P2 fails, i.e., ​ failure of P1 + failure of P2​ .
But this will also contain the case when both P1 and P2 fails at the same time, i.e., ​ failure of P1 ∩ failure of P2​ , since this case will be already be counted on (​ P1+P2​ ).
Therefore, our final answer will be ​ failure of P1 + failure of P2 - (failure of P1 ∩ failure of P2)
Question 91
Which of the following is not a deliverable of the structured system analysis?
A
Data flow diagram
B
Prototype model
C
Entity Relationship diagram
D
Data dictionary
       Software-Engineering       Nielit Scientist-B 17-12-2017
Question 91 Explanation: 
→ Prototype model is used when the customers do not know the exact project requirements beforehand. In this model, a prototype of the end product is first developed, tested and refined as per customer feedback repeatedly till a final acceptable prototype is achieved which forms the basis for developing the final product.
Question 92
​ By open domain CASE tools we mean
A
tools available in open domain
B
Software packages which can be downloaded from the internet
C
Software packages to aid each phase of the systems analysis and design which an be downloaded free of cost from the internet
D
Source codes of CASE tools
       Software-Engineering       Software-configuration-management       Nielit Scientific Assistance IT 15-10-2017
Question 92 Explanation: 
● Tools are also in the open domain which can be downloaded and used.
● They do not usually have very good user interfaces.
Question 93

Which of the following DFD levels depicts the entire information system as one diagram concealing all the underlying details?

A
Level 0
B
Level 1
C
Level 3
D
Level 2
       Software-Engineering       DFD       JT(IT) 2018 PART-B Computer Science
Question 93 Explanation: 
DFD level 0:
→ It Highest abstraction level DFD is known as Level 0 DFD, which depicts the entire information system as one diagram concealing all the underlying details.
→ Level 0 DFDs are also known as context level DFDs.
→ It shows a data system as a whole and emphasizes the way it interacts with external entities.
→ This DFD level 0 example shows how such a system might function within a typical retail business.
DFD level 1:
→ DFD depicts basic modules in the system and flow of data among various modules.
→ Level 1 DFD also mentions basic processes and sources of information.
→ It breaks down the main processes in to subprocesses that can then be analyzed and improved on a more intimate level.
DFD level 2:
A level 2 data flow diagram (DFD) offers a more detailed look at the processes that make up an information system than a level 1 DFD does it. Higher level DFDs can be transformed into more specific lower level DFDs with deeper level of understanding unless the desired level of specification is achieved.
Question 94
By open domain CASE tools we mean
A
tools available in open domain
B
Software packages which can be downloaded from the internet
C
Software packages to aid each phase of the systems analysis and design which an be downloaded free of cost from the internet
D
Source codes of CASE tools
       Software-Engineering       Software-configuration-management       Nielit Scientific Assistance CS 15-10-2017
Question 94 Explanation: 
● Tools are also in the open domain which can be downloaded and used.
● They do not usually have very good user interfaces.
Question 95
What is the modality of relationship, if there is no explicit need for relationship to occur?
A
0
B
2
C
3
D
1
       Software-Engineering       Modality       Nielit Scientific Assistance CS 15-10-2017
Question 95 Explanation: 
→ The modality of a relationship is 0 if there is no explicit need for the relationship to occur or the relationship is optional.
→ The modality is 1 if an occurrence of the relationship is mandatory
Question 96

Which of the following is NOT a goal of the software testing?

A
Failure detection
B
Fault detection
C
Size reduction
D
Error detection
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       JT(IT) 2018 PART-B Computer Science
Question 96 Explanation: 
Size reduction is not goal of software testing because their intention is to find bugs and detection of bugs.
Question 97

What is the Cyclomatic Complexity of the following flow-graph of a software code?

A
10
B
4
C
8
D
2
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       JT(IT) 2018 PART-B Computer Science
Question 97 Explanation: 
Step-1: To find cyclomatic complexity we have 3 formulas.
Number of regions(R) + 1
Predicates(P) + 1
Edges(E) - Vertex(V) + 2
Step-2: We can apply any formula to find cyclomatic complexity.
Step-3: 8 vertex and 10 edges.
10 - 8 + 2 = 4
Question 98
Which of the following is a desirable property of module?
A
Independency
B
Low Cohesiveness
C
High Coupling
D
Multifunctional
       Software-Engineering       Coupling-and-Cohesion       Nielit Scientific Assistance CS 15-10-2017
Question 98 Explanation: 
● Highly coupled have program units dependent on each other.
● Loosely coupled are made up of units that are independent or almost independent.
● The desirable property is High cohesion and low coupling
● From the above options , the suitable option is independency
Question 99
Which of the following represents the life cycle of software development?
A
Design → Analysis → Coding→ Operations and maintenance→ Testing
B
Analysis→ Design→ Coding→ Testing→ Operation and Maintenance
C
Design→ Analysis→ Coding→ Testing→ Operation and Maintenance
D
Analysis→ Design→ Coding→ Operation and maintenance→ Testing
       Software-Engineering       Software-quality       KVS DEC-2017
Question 99 Explanation: 
Life cycle of software development phases
1. Planning: Without the perfect plan, calculating the strengths and weaknesses of the project, development of software is meaningless. Planning kicks off a project flawlessly and affects its progress positively.
2. Analysis: This step is about analyzing the performance of the software at various stages and making notes on additional requirements. Analysis is very important to proceed further to the next step.
3. Design: Once the analysis is complete, the step of designing takes over, which is basically building the architecture of the project. This step helps remove possible flaws by setting a standard and attempting to stick to it.
4. Development & Implementation: The actual task of developing the software starts here with data recording going on in the background. Once the software is developed, the stage of implementation comes in where the product goes through a pilot study to see if it’s functioning properly.
5. Testing: The testing stage assesses the software for errors and documents bugs if there are any.
6. Maintenance: Once the software passes through all the stages without any issues, it is to undergo a maintenance process wherein it will be maintained and upgraded from time to time to adapt to changes.
Question 100

If customer is to be involved in all phases of software development, which software model can be selected:

A
Prototype model
B
Waterfall model
C
RAD model
D
Component model
       Software-Engineering       Software-process-models       JT(IT) 2016 PART-B Computer Science
Question 100 Explanation: 
Rapid Application Development focuses on gathering customer requirements through workshops or focus groups, early testing of the prototypes by the customer using iterative concept, reuse of the existing prototypes (components), continuous integration and rapid delivery.
Question 101
Software does not wear-out in the traditional sense of the term, but software does tend to deteriorate as it evolves, because :
A
Software suffers from exposure to hostile environments.
B
Defects are more likely to arise after software has been used often.
C
Multiple change requests introduce errors in component interactions.
D
Software spare parts become harder to order.
       Software-Engineering       Software-configuration-management       UGC NET CS 2017 Nov- paper-2
Question 101 Explanation: 
Software is not susceptible to the same environmental problems that cause hardware to wear out. In theory, therefore, the failure rate curve for software should take the form shown below.
Question 102
Which of the following is not a key issue stressed by an agile philosophy of software engineering ?
A
The importance of self-organizing teams as well as communication and collaboration between team members and customers.
B
Recognition that change represents opportunity.
C
Emphasis on rapid delivery of software that satisfies the customer.
D
Having a separate testing phase after a build phase.
       Software-Engineering       Software-process-models       UGC NET CS 2017 Nov- paper-2
Question 102 Explanation: 
→ Agile software development testing is completed in the same iteration as programming. One phase is completed in its entirety before moving on to the next phase because testing is done in every iteration which develops a small piece of the software users can frequently use those new pieces of software and validate the value.
Question 103
What is the normal order of activities in which traditional software testing is organized?
(a) Integration Testing
(b) System Testing
(c) Unit Testing
(d) Validation Testing
A
(c),(a),(b),(d)
B
(c),(a),(d),(b)
C
(d),(c),(b),(a)
D
(b),(d),(a),(c)
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       UGC NET CS 2017 Nov- paper-2
Question 103 Explanation: 

Unit testing:​ Unit testing starts at the centre and each unit is implemented in source code.
Integration testing:​ An integration testing focuses on the construction and design of the software.
Validation testing:​ Check all the requirements like functional, behavioral and performance requirement are validate against the construction software.
System testing:​ System testing confirms all system elements and performance are tested entirely.
Question 104
Which of the following testing techniques ensures that the software product runs correctly after the changes during maintenance ?
A
Path Testing
B
Integration Testing
C
Unit Testing
D
Regression Testing
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       UGC NET CS 2017 Nov- paper-2
Question 104 Explanation: 
→ Regression testing is the re-execution of some subset of tests that have already been conducted to ensure that changes have not propagated unintended side effects Whenever software is corrected, some aspect of the software configuration (the program, its documentation, or the data that support it) is changed.
→ Regression testing helps to ensure that changes (due to testing or for other reasons) do not introduce unintended behavior or additional errors.
→ Regression testing may be conducted manually, by re-executing a subset of all test cases or using automated capture/playback tools.
Question 105
Which of the following Supercomputers is the fastest Supercomputer ?
A
Sunway TaihuLight
B
Titan
C
Piz Daint
D
Sequoia
       Software-Engineering       UGC NET CS 2017 Nov- paper-2
Question 105 Explanation: 
→ The Sunway TaihuLight is a Chinese supercomputer which, as of November 2018, is ranked third in the TOP500 list, with a LINPACK benchmark rating of 93 petaflops.[ The name is translated as divine power, the light of Taihu Lake.
Question 106
Which of the following statements about ERP system is true ?
A
Most ERP software implementations fully achieve seamless integration
B
ERP software packages are themselves combinations of separate applications for manufacturing, materials, resource planning, general ledger, human resources, procurement and order entry.
C
Integration of ERP systems can be achieved in only one way
D
An ERP package implemented uniformly throughout an enterprise is likely to contain very flexible connections to allow charges and software variations.
       Software-Engineering       ERP       UGC NET CS 2017 Nov- paper-2
Question 106 Explanation: 
ERP software packages are themselves combinations of separate applications for manufacturing, materials, resource planning, general ledger, human resources, procurement and order entry.
Question 107
Software Engineering is an engineering discipline that is concerned with:
A
how computer systems work
B
theories and methods that underlie computers and software systems.
C
all aspects of software production
D
all aspects of computer-based systems development, including hardware, software and process engineering.
       Software-Engineering       Software-Engineering       UGC NET CS 2017 Jan -paper-2
Question 107 Explanation: 
→ Software Engineering is an engineering discipline that is concerned with all aspects of software production → It follows some basic activities are software specification, software development, software validation and software evolution.
Question 108
Which of the following is not one of three software product aspects addressed by McCall’s software quality factors ?
A
Ability to undergo change
B
Adaptability to new environments
C
Operational characteristics
D
Production costs and scheduling
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2017 Jan -paper-2
Question 108 Explanation: 
McCall’s software quality factors
1. Product operation factors − Correctness, Reliability, Efficiency, Integrity, Usability.
2. Product revision factors − Maintainability, Flexibility, Testability.
3. Product transition factors − Portability, Reusability, Interoperability.
Question 109
Which of the following statement(s) is/are true with respect to software architecture ?
S1 : Coupling is a measure of how well the things grouped together in a module belong together logically.
S2 : Cohesion is a measure of the degree of interaction between software modules.
S3 : If coupling is low and cohesion is high then it is easier to change one module without affecting others.
A
Only S1 and S2
B
Only S3
C
All of S1, S2 and S3
D
Only S1
       Software-Engineering       Coupling-and-Cohesion       UGC NET CS 2017 Jan -paper-2
Question 109 Explanation: 
→ Cohesion is the indication of the relationship within a module.
→ Coupling is the indication of the relationships between modules.
→ If coupling is low and cohesion is high then it is easier to change one module without affecting others.
→ High cohesion within modules and low coupling between modules are often regarded as related to high quality in software architecture as well as object oriented programming languages.
Question 110
The prototyping model of software development is:
A
a reasonable approach when requirements are well-defined
B
a useful approach when a customer cannot define requirements clearly.
C
the best approach to use for projects with large development teams.
D
a risky model that rarely produces a meaningful product.
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2017 Jan -paper-2
Question 110 Explanation: 
→ The prototyping model of software development is a useful approach when a customer cannot define requirements clearly.
Advantage:
1. We can develop the software where requirements are unclear
2. Customer satisfaction
Disadvantage:
1. Who pay cost of prototype
2. Required the design expertise
Question 111
A software design pattern used to enhance the functionality of an object at run-time is:
A
Adapter
B
Decorator
C
Delegation
D
Proxy
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2017 Jan -paper-2
Question 111 Explanation: 
→ Software design pattern used to enhance the functionality of an object at run-time is Decorator.
→ Decorator will attach additional responsibilities to an object dynamically keeping the same interface.
→ Decorators provide a flexible alternative to subclassing for extending functionality.
Question 112
Which of the following is used to determine the specificity of requirements? [ Where n​ 1​ is the number of requirements for which all reviewers have identical interpretations, n​ 2​ is number of requirements in a specification.]
A
n​ 1​ / n​ 2
B
n​ ​ 2​ / n​ 1
C
n​ 1​ + n​ ​ 2
D
n​ 1​ - n​ ​ 2
       Software-Engineering       Software-requirements       UGC NET CS 2016 Aug- paper-2
Question 112 Explanation: 
T​ he specificity of requirements determines n​ 1​ / n​ 2
n​ 1​ is the number of requirements for which all reviewers have identical interpretations
n​ 2​ is number of requirements in a specification
Question 113
The major shortcoming of waterfall model is
A
The difficulty in accommodating changes after requirement analysis.
B
The difficult in accommodating changes after feasibility analysis.
C
The system testing
D
The maintenance of system.
       Software-Engineering       Waterfall-model       UGC NET CS 2016 Aug- paper-2
Question 113 Explanation: 
Advantages:
1. Waterfall model is simple and easy to understand.
2. It works as reference model for others.
Disadvantage:
1. Real projects cannot be sequential
2. Initially all requirements should known i.e requirements are frozen. It may be suited for static projects.
3. Error omission too costly
4. Maintenance is too costly(We have to redesign the whole project from scratch)
5. Customer must have patience
6. It is based on Big-Bang approach
Question 114
The quick design of a software that is visible to end users leads to _____.
A
iterative model
B
prototype model
C
spiral model
D
waterfall model
       Software-Engineering       Software-process-models       UGC NET CS 2016 Aug- paper-2
Question 114 Explanation: 
The quick design of a software that is visible to end users leads to prototype model.
Advantages:
1. We can develop software where requirements are unclear
2. Customer satisfaction
Disadvantage:
1. Who pay cost of prototype
2. Required the design expertise
3. Throwaway approach (or) evolutionary approach ( In this approach we develop the software by enhancing protype)
Question 115
For a program of k variables, boundary value analysis yields ______ test cases.
A
4k – 1
B
4k
C
4k + 1
D
2​ k​ – 1
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       UGC NET CS 2016 Aug- paper-2
Question 115 Explanation: 
For a program of k variables, boundary value analysis yields 4k + 1 test cases.
Question 116
The extent to which a software performs its intended functions without failures, is termed as__
A
Robustness
B
Correctness
C
Reliability
D
Accuracy
       Software-Engineering       UGC NET CS 2016 Aug- paper-2
Question 116 Explanation: 
→ The extent to which a software performs its intended functions without failures, is termed as Reliability.
→ ​ Software reliability​ is defined as the ability of a system or component to perform its required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time. It is the probability of a failure free operation of a program for a specified time in a specified environment.
→ ​ Robustness​ is the ability of a computer system to cope with errors during execution and cope with erroneous input.
→ ​ Correctness​ of an algorithm is asserted when it is said that the algorithm is correct with respect to a specification.
→ ​ Accuracy​ of a measurement system is the degree of closeness of measurements of a quantity to that quantity's true value.
Question 117
If S​ 1​ is total number of modules defined in the program architecture, S​ 3​ is the number of modules whose correct function depends on prior processing then the number of modules not dependent on prior processing is :
A
1 + (S​ 3​ / S​ 1​ )
B
1 - (S​ 3​ / S​ 1​ )
C
1 + (S​ 1​ / S​ 3​ )
D
1 - (S​ 1​ / S​ 3​ )
       Software-Engineering       Software-process-models       UGC NET CS 2016 July- paper-2
Question 117 Explanation: 
S1 = The total number of modules defined in the program architecture.
S3 = The number of modules whose correct function depends on prior processing.
Module not dependent on prior processing is 1- (S3/S1)
Question 118
The ________ model is preferred for software development when the requirements are not clear.
A
Rapid Application Development
B
Rational Unified Process
C
Evolutionary Model
D
Waterfall Model
       Software-Engineering       Software-process-models       UGC NET CS 2016 July- paper-2
Question 118 Explanation: 
→ Rapid Application Development(RAD) is used when the requirements cannot or will not be specified.
→ Evolutionary Model is preferred for software development when the requirements are not clear.
→ The evolutionary software process model, is more commonly known as the “spiral model”.
Question 119
Which of the following is not included in waterfall model?
A
Requirement analysis
B
Risk analysis
C
Design
D
Coding
       Software-Engineering       Waterfall-model       UGC NET CS 2016 July- paper-2
Question 119 Explanation: 
Waterfall model steps:
1.Feasibility Study
2.Analysis
3.Design
4.Coding and Testing
5.Integration & System testing
6.Maintenance
Question 120
In software testing, how the error, fault and failure are related to each other?
A
Error leads to failure but fault is not related to error and failure.
B
Fault leads to failure but error is not related to fault and failure.
C
Error leads to fault and fault leads to failure.
D
Fault leads to error and error leads to failure.
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       UGC NET CS 2015 Dec- paper-2
Question 120 Explanation: 
→ Error: A human action that produces an incorrect result. This is also sometimes referred to as Mistake.
→ Fault: A manifestation of an error in software, also known as Defect or Bug.
→ Failure: A deviation of the software from its expected delivery or service.
Relation between Error,Fault and Failure
Question 121
In which testing strategy requirements established during requirements analysis are validated against developed software?
A
Validation testing
B
Integration testing
C
Regression testing
D
System testing
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       UGC NET CS 2015 Jun- paper-2
Question 121 Explanation: 
Validation Testing ensures that the product actually meets the client's needs. It can also be defined as to demonstrate that the product fulfills its intended use when deployed on appropriate environment.
It answers to the question, Are we building the right product?
Question 122
Which process model is also called as classic life cycle model?
A
Waterfall model
B
RAD model
C
Prototyping model
D
Incremental model
       Software-Engineering       Waterfall-model       UGC NET CS 2015 Jun- paper-2
Question 122 Explanation: 
→ The classical waterfall model is intuitively the most obvious way to develop software. Though the classical waterfall model is elegant and intuitively obvious, it is not a practical model in the sense that it can not be used in actual software development projects.
→ This model can be considered to be a theoretical way of developing software. But all other life cycle models are essentially derived from the classical waterfall model. So, in order to be able to appreciate other life cycle models it is necessary to learn the classical waterfall model.
Question 123
Cohesion is an extension of:
A
Abstraction concept
B
Refinement concept
C
Information hiding concept
D
Modularity
       Software-Engineering       Coupling-and-Cohesion       UGC NET CS 2015 Jun- paper-2
Question 123 Explanation: 
→ Cohesion refers to the degree to which the elements inside a module belong together.
→ Cohesion is an extension of Information hiding concept.
Question 124
Which one from the following is highly associated activity of project planning?
A
Keep track of the project progress.
B
Compare actual and planned progress and costs.
C
Identify the activities, milestones and deliverables produced by a project.
D
Both (2) and (3).
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2015 Jun- paper-2
Question 124 Explanation: 
Project planning activities(High priority):
1. Compare actual and planned progress and costs.
2. Identify the activities, milestones and deliverables produced by a project.
Question 125
Which of the following statements is incorrect for Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) ?
A
The PVM communication model provides asynchronous blocking send, asynchronous blocking receive, and non-blocking receive function.
B
Message buffers are allocated dynamically.
C
The PVM communication model assumes that any task can send a message to any other PVM task and that there is no limit to the size or number of such messages.
D
In PVM model, the message order is not preserved.
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2015 Jun- paper-2
Question 125 Explanation: 
PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) is a software package that permits a heterogeneous collection of Unix and/or Windows computers hooked together by a network to be used as a single large parallel computer. Thus large computational problems can be solved more cost effectively by using the aggregate power and memory of many computers. The software is very portable. The source, which is available free thru netlib, has been compiled on everything from laptops to CRAYs.
→ PVM enables users to exploit their existing computer hardware to solve much larger problems at minimal additional cost. Hundreds of sites around the world are using PVM to solve important scientific, industrial, and medical problems in addition to PVM's use as an educational tool to teach parallel programming. With tens of thousands of users, PVM has become the de facto standard for distributed computing world-wide.
Question 126
The main objective of designing various modules of a software system is :
A
To decrease the cohesion and to increase the coupling
B
To increase the cohesion and to decrease the coupling
C
To increase the coupling only
D
To increase the cohesion only
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2004 Dec-Paper-2
Question 126 Explanation: 
→ Cohesion is a measure of internal strength within a module, whereas coupling is a measure of inter dependency among the modules.
→ So in the context of modular software design there should be high cohesion and low coupling.
Question 127
Three essential components of a software project plan are :
A
Team structure, Quality assurance plans, Cost estimation
B
Cost estimation, Time estimation, Quality assurance plan
C
Cost estimation, Time estimation, Personnel estimation
D
Cost estimation, Personnel estimation, Team structure
       Software-Engineering       Software-requirements       UGC NET CS 2004 Dec-Paper-2
Question 127 Explanation: 
→ A project is a success if it meets the objectives of time, cost, technical and business.
Essential components:
1.Software size estimation
2.Effort estimation
3.Time estimation
4.Cost estimation
Question 128
Reliability of software is dependent on :
A
Number of errors present in software
B
Documentation
C
Testing suites
D
Development Processes
       Software-Engineering       Software-Reliabiliy       UGC NET CS 2004 Dec-Paper-2
Question 128 Explanation: 
→ Reliability of software is dependent on number of errors present in software.
→ Software Reliability is the probability of failure-free software operation for a specified period of time in a specified environment.
Question 129
The Function Point (FP) metric is :
A
Calculated from user requirements
B
Calculated from Lines of code
C
Calculated from software​ s complexity assessment
D
None of the above
       Software-Engineering       Cyclomatic-metric       UGC NET CS 2004 Dec-Paper-2
Question 129 Explanation: 
→ The Function Point (FP) metric is calculated from software​ s complexity assessment.
→ A Function Point (FP) is a unit of measurement to express the amount of business functionality, an information system (as a product) provides to a user.
→ FPs measure software size. They are widely accepted as an industry standard for functional sizing.
Question 130
The testing of software against SRS is called :
A
Acceptance testing
B
Integration testing
C
Regression testing
D
Series testing
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       UGC NET CS 2005 Dec-Paper-2
Question 130 Explanation: 
→ Acceptance testing is a test conducted to determine if the requirements of a specification or contract are met. This is test works on SRS document.
→ In software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group. Some different types of integration testing are big-bang, mixed (sandwich), risky-hardest, top-down, and bottom-up.
→ Regression testing is re-running functional and non-functional tests to ensure that previously developed and tested software still performs after a change. If not, that would be called a regression. Changes that may require regression testing include bug fixes, software enhancements, configuration changes, and even substitution of electronic components.
Question 131
The lower degree of cohesion is :
A
logical cohesion
B
coincidental cohesion
C
procedural cohesion
D
communicational cohesion
       Software-Engineering       Coupling-and-Cohesion       UGC NET CS 2005 Dec-Paper-2
Question 131 Explanation: 
Cohesion is a measure of degree to which elements of a module are functionally related.
Given a list is least desirable to most desirable types in module cohesion
Question 132
The Reliability of the software is directly dependent upon :
A
Quality of the design
B
Programmer​ s experience
C
Number of error
D
Set of user requirements
       Software-Engineering       Software-Reliabiliy       UGC NET CS 2005 Dec-Paper-2
Question 132 Explanation: 
→ Reliability of software is dependent on number of errors present in software.
→ Software Reliability is the probability of failure-free software operation for a specified period of time in a specified environment.
Question 133
Successive layer of design in software using bottom-up design is called :
A
Layer of Definement
B
Layer of Construction
C
Layer of abstraction
D
None of the above
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2005 Dec-Paper-2
Question 133 Explanation: 
Successive layer of design in software using bottom-up design is called layer of abstraction.
Question 134
Sliding window concept of software project management is :
A
Preparation of comprehensible plan
B
Preparation of the various stages of development
C
Ad-hoc planning
D
Requirement analysis
       Software-Engineering       Software-configuration-management       UGC NET CS 2005 Dec-Paper-2
Question 134 Explanation: 
→ In the sliding window technique, starting with an initial plan, the project is planned more accurately in successive development stages.
→ At the start of a project, project managers have incomplete knowledge about the details of the project. Their information base gradually improves as the project progresses through different phases. After the completion of every phase, the project managers can plan each subsequent phase more accurately and with increasing levels of confidence.
Question 135
Which of the following tools is not required during system analysis phase of system development Life cycle ?
A
CASE Tool
B
RAD Tool
C
Reverse engineering tool
D
None of these
       Software-Engineering       Software-Development       UGC NET CS 2005 june-paper-2
Question 135 Explanation: 
→ ​ Reverse engineering tools​ are using debuggers. The debuggers are either user mode or Kernel mode.
→ ​ Computer aided software engineering​ (CASE) is the domain of software tools used to design and implement applications. CASE tools are similar to and were partly inspired by computer aided design (CAD) tools used for designing hardware products. CASE tools are used for developing high-quality, defect-free, and maintainable software.
→ ​ Rapid Application Development​ refers to a software development approach which puts less emphasis on planning and even design specifications, and more on rapid development and quick feedback. Prototypes are rapidly delivered to users to ensure they’re directly involved in feedback and development. There are also tools for collecting data, designing personal workflows, and setting up unique rules for each new application.
Question 136
A black hole in a DFD is a :
A
A data store with no inbound flows
B
A data store with only in bound flows
C
A data store with more than one in bound flow
D
None of these.
       Software-Engineering       Software-Development       UGC NET CS 2005 june-paper-2
Question 136 Explanation: 
Black Hole: A processing step may have input flows but no output flows.
Miracle: A processing step may have output flows but now input flows.
Grey Hole: A processing step may have outputs that are greater than the sum of its inputs - e.g., its inputs could not produce the output shown.
Question 137
Which one of the following is not a software process model ?
A
Linear sequential model
B
Prototyping model
C
The spiral model
D
COCOMO model
       Software-Engineering       Types-of-Models       UGC NET CS 2005 june-paper-2
Question 137 Explanation: 
The Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO) is a procedural software cost estimation model but not software process model. Linear sequential,prototype and spiral models are software process models.
Question 138
System Development Life-cycle has following stages :
(I) Requirement analysis
(II) Coding
(III) Design
(IV) Testing
Which option describes the correct sequence of stages ?
A
III, I, IV, II
B
II, III, I, IV
C
I, III, IV, II
D
None of the above
       Software-Engineering       Software-Development       UGC NET CS 2005 june-paper-2
Question 138 Explanation: 
Question 139
Which one is measure of software complexity ?
A
Number of lines of code (LOC)
B
Number of man years
C
Number of function points (FP)
D
All of the above
E
Both LOC and FP
       Software-Engineering       software-complexity       UGC NET CS 2005 june-paper-2
Question 139 Explanation: 
→ A function point is a "unit of measurement" to express the amount of business functionality an information system (as a product) provides to a user. Function points are used to compute a functional size measurement (FSM) of software.
→ Lines of code (LOC) is a software metric used to measure the size of a computer program by counting the number of lines in the text of the program's source code.
Question 140
Which type of coupling is least preferred ?
A
Content coupling
B
Data coupling
C
Control coupling
D
Common coupling
       Software-Engineering       Coupling-and-Cohesion       UGC NET CS 2005 june-paper-2
Question 140 Explanation: 
Data coupling is the weakest coupling and it is most desirable coupling in a software, as a low degree of coupling is good for a software.
Coupling in the order from highest(least desirable) to the least (most desirable)
I. Content coupling
II. Common coupling
III. Control coupling
IV. Stamp coupling
V. Data coupling
Question 141
Which of the following tools is not required during system analysis phase of system development life cycle ?
A
Case tool
B
RAD tool
C
Reverse engineering
D
None of these
       Software-Engineering       Software-Development       UGC NET CS 2006 Dec-paper-2
Question 141 Explanation: 
→ ​ Reverse engineering tools​ are using debuggers. The debuggers are either user mode or Kernel mode.
→ ​ Computer aided software engineering​ (CASE) is the domain of software tools used to design and implement applications. CASE tools are similar to and were partly inspired by computer aided design (CAD) tools used for designing hardware products. CASE tools are used for developing high-quality, defect-free, and maintainable software.
→ ​ Rapid Application Development​ refers to a software development approach which puts less emphasis on planning and even design specifications, and more on rapid development and quick feedback. Prototypes are rapidly delivered to users to ensure they’re directly involved in feedback and development. There are also tools for collecting data, designing personal workflows, and setting up unique rules for each new application.
Question 142
Software Cost Performance index (CPI) is given by :
[Where : BCWP stands for Budgeted Cost of Work Performed.
BCWS stands for Budget Cost of Work Scheduled
ACWP stands for Actual Cost of Work Performed
A
BCW P/ ACW P
B
No option given
C
BCWP−ACWP
D
BCWP−BCWS
       Software-Engineering       Software-configuration-management       UGC NET CS 2006 Dec-paper-2
Question 142 Explanation: 
The Cost Performance Index can be determined by dividing the earned value by actual cost.
Cost Performance Index = BCWP stands for Budgeted Cost of Work Performed / ACWP stands for Actual Cost of Work Performed
CPI = BCWP/ACWP
Question 143
Software Risk estimation involves following two tasks :
A
risk magnitude and risk impact
B
risk probability and risk impact
C
risk maintenance and risk impact
D
risk development and risk impact
       Software-Engineering       Software-configuration-management       UGC NET CS 2006 Dec-paper-2
Question 143 Explanation: 
Software Risk estimation involves risk probability and risk impact.
Question 144
Reliability of software is directly dependent on :
A
quality of the design
B
number of errors present
C
software engineer’s experience
D
user requirement
       Software-Engineering       Software-Reliabiliy       UGC NET CS 2006 Dec-paper-2
Question 144 Explanation: 
→ Reliability of software is dependent on number of errors present in software.
→ Software Reliability is the probability of failure-free software operation for a specified period of time in a specified environment.
Question 145
‘Abstraction’ is ____________ step of Attribute in a software design.
A
First
B
Final
C
Last
D
Middle
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2006 Dec-paper-2
Question 145 Explanation: 
‘Abstraction’ is first step of Attribute in a software design. The process of removing physical, spatial, or temporal details or attributes in the study of objects or systems in order to more closely attend to other details of interest.
Question 146
In software project planning, work Breakdown structure must be __________ .
A
A graph
B
A tree
C
A Eular​s graph
D
None of the above
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2006 June-Paper-2
Question 146 Explanation: 
Work Breakdown structure(WBS) must be tree. The tree structure will give overall view of a project. Normally we can divide two types of WBS
1. Functional WBS
2. Activity WBS
WBS tree structure:
Question 147
In Software Metrics, McCABE​ S cyclomatic number is given by following formula :
A
c=e-n+2p
B
c=e-n-2p
C
c=e+n+2p
D
c=e-n* 2p
       Software-Engineering       Cyclomatic-metric       UGC NET CS 2006 June-Paper-2
Question 147 Explanation: 
Cyclomatic complexity uses 3 formulas
1. Number of regions + 1
2. Predicate + 1
3. Edges-Vertices+2
As per the above question, c=cyclomatic complexity
e=number of edges
n=number of vertices
p=predicates
Question 148
In a good software design, __________ coupling is desirable between modules.
A
Highest
B
Lowest
C
Internal
D
External
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2006 June-Paper-2
Question 148 Explanation: 
→ Cohesion is a measure of internal strength within a module, whereas coupling is a measure of inter dependency among the modules.
→ So in the context of modular software design there should be high cohesion and low coupling.
Question 149
System study yields the following :
A
Requirement specifications
B
Prevailing process description
C
Data source identification
D
All the above
       Software-Engineering       Software-requirements       UGC NET CS 2006 June-Paper-2
Question 149 Explanation: 
System study yields the following requirement specifications. A Software requirements specification document describes the intended purpose, requirements and nature of a software to be developed. It also includes the yield and cost of the software.
Question 150
The COCOMO model is used for __________ .
A
software design
B
software cost estimation
C
software cost approximation
D
software analysis
       Software-Engineering       COCOMO-Model       UGC NET CS 2006 June-Paper-2
Question 150 Explanation: 
The COCOMO model is used for software cost estimation.
The basic COCOMO equations take the form
1. Effort Applied (E) = a(KLOC)​ b
2. Development Time (D) = c(Effort Applied)​ d
3. People required (P) = Effort Applied / Development Time [count]
where, KLOC is the estimated number of delivered lines (expressed in thousands ) of code for project. The constants a, b, c and d are given in the following table (note: the values listed below are from the original analysis, with a modern reanalysis producing different values).
Question 151
__________ are applied throughout the software process.
A
Framework activities
B
Umbrella activities
C
Planning activities
D
Construction activities
       Software-Engineering       Software-process       UGC NET CS 2014 Dec-Paper-2
Question 151 Explanation: 
→ The umbrella activities occur throughout the software process they are applied evenly across the process, the analysis encompasses a set of work tasks (eg. requirement gathering, elaboration, negotiation specification and validation).
→ These activities include Software project tracking and control, Risk management, Software quality assurance, and formal technical reviews, measurement, Software configuration management, reusability management and work product preparation and production.
Question 152
Requirement Development, Organizational Process Focus, Organizational Training, Risk Management and Integrated Supplier Management are process areas required to achieve maturity level
A
Performed
B
Managed
C
Defined
D
Optimized
       Software-Engineering       Risk-management       UGC NET CS 2014 Dec-Paper-2
Question 152 Explanation: 
Managed maturity level focuses on software metrics. Two metrics are
1. Product Metric: It measures the characteristics of product being developed. Product metrics are size, reliability, understandability etc..,
2. Process Metrics: It reflect the effectiveness of process. Process metrics are average defect correction on time, number of failures detected during testing per LOC etc.,
This level focuses on improving product and process quality. The Key process areas are quantitative process metric and software quality management.
Question 153
The software _________ of a program or a computing system is the structure or structures of the system, which comprise software components, the externally visible properties of those components, and the relationships among them.
A
Design
B
Architecture
C
Process
D
Requirement
       Software-Engineering       Software-process-models       UGC NET CS 2014 Dec-Paper-2
Question 153 Explanation: 
The software Architecture of a program or a computing system is the structure or structures of the system, which comprise software components, the externally visible properties of those components, and the relationships among them.
Question 154
Which one of the following set of attributes should not be encompassed by effective software metrics ?
A
Simple and computable
B
Consistent and objective
C
Consistent in the use of units and dimensions
D
Programming language dependent
       Software-Engineering       Software-metrics       UGC NET CS 2014 Dec-Paper-2
Question 154 Explanation: 
Programming language dependent attributes should not be encompassed by effective software metrics.
Question 155
Which one of the following is used to compute cyclomatic complexity ?
A
The number of regions – 1
B
E – N + 1, where E is the number of flow graph edges and N is the number of flow graph nodes.
C
P – 1, where P is the number of predicate nodes in the flow graph G.
D
P + 1, where P is the number of predicate nodes in the flow graph G.
       Software-Engineering       Cyclomatic-complexity       UGC NET CS 2014 Dec-Paper-2
Question 155 Explanation: 
Cyclomatic complexity uses 3 formulas
1. Number of regions + 1
2. Predicate + 1
3. Edges-Vertices+2
Question 156
​The Software Requirement Specification(SRS) is said to be _________ if and only if no subset of individual requirements described in it conflict with each other.
A
Correct
B
Consistent
C
Unambiguous
D
Verifiable
       Software-Engineering       SRS       UGC NET CS 2018-DEC Paper-2
Question 156 Explanation: 
The Software Requirement Specification(SRS) is said to be Consistent if and only if no subset of individual requirements described in it conflict with each other.
Unambiguous : ​ SRS said to be unambiguous if there exist no word that have more than one meaning and this will not confuse testers to get the exact reference.
Correct : SRS is said to be correct if it is error free and accurate.
Question 157
​ Which of the following statements is/are ​ false?
P: The clean-room strategy to software engineering is based on the incremental software process model.
Q: The clean-room strategy to software engineering is one of the ways to overcome “unconscious” copying of copyrighted code.
Choose the correct answer from the code given below:
A
Neither P and Q
B
P only
C
Both P and Q
D
Q only
       Software-Engineering       Software-process-models       UGC NET CS 2018-DEC Paper-2
Question 157 Explanation: 
Clean-room Strategy:
Cleanroom software engineering (CSE) is a process model that removes defects before they can precipitate serious hazards. It is a team-oriented, theory based software, which is developed using the formal methods, correctness verification and Statistical Quality Assurance (SQA).
→ Clean room management is based on the incremental model of software development, which accumulates into the final product. The approach combines mathematical-based methods of software specification, design and correctness verification with statistical, usage-based testing to certify software fitness for use.
→ The main goal of clean room engineering is to produce zero error-based software by allowing correct designs, which avoid rework.
Question 158
Which of the following statements is/are true?
P: Software Reengineering is preferable for software products having high failure rates, having poor design and/or having poor code structure
Q: Software Reverse Engineering is the process of analyzing software with the objective of recovering its design and requirement specification.
A
P only
B
Neither P nor Q
C
Q only
D
Both P and Q
       Software-Engineering       Software-Reengineering       UGC NET CS 2018-DEC Paper-2
Question 158 Explanation: 
Re-Engineering: Re-engineering refers to the rewriting the the part or whole system without changing its functionality. Re-Engineering is done for maintaining a system, to make the system compatible with the latest technologies.
Reverse engineering: It is also called as back engineering which is done to examine the working of a product.
Question 159
​Software coupling involves dependencies among pieces of software called modules. Which of the following are correct statements with respect to module coupling?
P: Common Coupling occurs when two modules share the same global data
Q: control Coupling occur when modules share a composite data structure and use only part of it.
R: Content coupling occurs when one module modifies or relies on the internal working of another module.
A
P and Q only
B
P and R only
C
Q and R only
D
All of P,Q and R
       Software-Engineering       Coupling-and-Cohesion       UGC NET CS 2018-DEC Paper-2
Question 159 Explanation: 
Control Coupling : It exists between two modules if data from one module to other is used to direct the order of instruction execution in other module.
Common Coupling : Common coupling take place when two modules share global data.
Content Coupling : Content coupling exists between two modules if their code is shared.
Question 160
​ Match each UML diagram in List 1 with Appropriate description in List 2

A
(a)-(i), (b)-(iv), (c) -(iii), (d)-(ii)
B
(a)-(iv), (b)-(ii), (c) -(i), (d)-(iii)
C
(a)-(iv), (b)-(i), (c) -(ii), (d)-(iii)
D
(a)-(i), (b)-(iv), (c) -(ii), (d)-(iii)
       Software-Engineering        uml       UGC NET CS 2018-DEC Paper-2
Question 160 Explanation: 
State diagram:​ Used to describe the dynamic behaviour of objects and could also be used to describe the entire system behaviour. Statechart diagram describes the flow of control from one state to another state. States are defined as a condition in which an object exists and it changes when some event is triggered. The most important purpose of Statechart diagram is to model lifetime of an object from creation to termination.
Use case diagram:​ Describe how the external entities (people, devices) can interact with the system. Use case diagrams are used to gather the requirements of a system including internal and external influences.
Class diagram:​ The purpose of class diagram is to model the static view of an application. Class diagrams are the only diagrams which can be directly mapped with object-oriented languages and thus widely used at the time of construction.
Activity diagram:​ Usd to show the flow of a business process, the steps of a use case or the logic of an object behaviour.
Question 161
A legacy software system has 940 modules. The latest release require that 90 of these modules be changed. In addition, 40 new modules were added and 12 old modules were removed. Compute the software maturity index for the system.
A
0.725
B
0.923
C
0.849
D
0.524
       Software-Engineering       UGC NET CS 2018-DEC Paper-2
Question 161 Explanation: 
Software Maturity Index(SMI) = [M​ T​ - (F​ c​ + F​ a​ + F​ d​ )] / M​ T
Where, M​ T​ = The number of modules in the current release
F​ c = The number of modules in the current release that have been changed F​ a​ =The number of modules in the current release that have been added
F​ d​ =The number of modules from the preceding release that were deleted in the current release
SMI = [940-(90+40+12)]/940
SMI = 0.849
Question 162
Which one of the following is not a risk management technique for managing the risk due to unrealistic schedules and budgets ?
A
Detailed multi source cost and schedule estimation.
B
Design cost
C
Incremental development
D
Information hiding
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       UGC NET CS 2014 June-paper-2
Question 162 Explanation: 
Information hiding is not a risk management technique for managing the risk due to unrealistic schedules and budgets.
Question 163
_______ of a system is the structure or structures of the system which comprise software elements, the externally visible properties of these elements and the relationship amongst them.
A
Software construction
B
Software evolution
C
Software architecture
D
Software reuse
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       UGC NET CS 2014 June-paper-2
Question 163 Explanation: 
Software architecture of a system is the structure or structures of the system which comprise software elements, the externally visible properties of these elements and the relationship amongst them.
Question 164
Regression testing is primarily related to
A
Functional testing
B
Development testing
C
Data flow testing
D
Maintenance testing
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       UGC NET CS 2014 June-paper-2
Question 164 Explanation: 
→ Regression testing is re-running functional and non-functional tests to ensure that previously developed and tested software still performs after a change. If not, that would be called a regression.
→ Changes that may require regression testing include bug fixes, software enhancements, configuration changes, and even substitution of electronic components.
→ As regression test suites tend to grow with each found defect, test automation is frequently involved.
→ Regression testing is primarily related to Maintenance testing.
Question 165
Object Request Broker (ORB) is
I. A software program that runs on the client as well as on the application server.
II. A software program that runs on the client side only.
III. A software program that runs on the application server, where most of the components reside.I, II & III
A
I, II & III
B
I & II
C
II & III
D
I only
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2014 June-paper-2
Question 165 Explanation: 
Object Request Broker (ORB) is a middleware which allows program calls to be made from one computer to another via a computer network, providing location transparency through remote procedure calls. ORBs promote interoperability of distributed object systems, enabling such systems to be built by piecing together objects from different vendors, while different parts communicate with each other via the ORB.
→ A software program that runs on the client as well as on the application server used in distributed systems.
Question 166
A software agent is defined as
I. A software developed for accomplishing a given task.
II. A computer program which is capable of acting on behalf of the user in order to accomplish a given computational task.
III. An open source software for accomplishing a given task.
A
I
B
II
C
III
D
All of the above
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2014 June-paper-2
Question 166 Explanation: 
→ A software agent is a computer program that acts for a user or other program in a relationship of agency, which derives from the Latin agere (to do): an agreement to act on one's behalf. Such "action on behalf of" implies the authority to decide which, if any, action is appropriate. Agents are colloquially known as bots, from robot.
→ Software agents interacting with people (e.g. chatbots, human-robot interaction environments) may possess human-like qualities such as natural language understanding and speech, personality or embody humanoid form.
Question 167
​Which of the following is not one of the principles of agile software development method ?
A
Following the plan
B
Embrace change
C
Customer involvement
D
Incremental delivery
       Software-Engineering       SDLC       UGC NET CS 2018-DEC Paper-2
Question 167 Explanation: 
Agile Software Development is based on twelve principles:
1. Customer satisfaction by early and continuous delivery of valuable software.
2. Welcome changing requirements, even in late development.
3. Deliver working software frequently (weeks rather than months)
4. Close, daily cooperation between business people and developers
5. Projects are built around motivated individuals, who should be trusted
6. Face-to-face conversation is the best form of communication (co-location)
7. Working software is the primary measure of progress
8. Sustainable development, able to maintain a constant pace
9. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design
10. Simplicity—the art of maximizing the amount of work no done—is essential
11. Best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams
12. Regularly, the team reflects on how to become more effective, and adjusts accordingly
Question 168
Suppose a cloud contains software stack such as Operating system, Application software, etc. This model is referred as _________ model.
A
SaaS
B
IaaS
C
MaaS
D
PaaS
       Software-Engineering       Software-Availability       UGC NET CS 2018-DEC Paper-2
Question 168 Explanation: 
The following explains the 3 services offered by cloud computing for businesses:
1) Platform as a Service (PaaS): PaaS clouds are created, often times inside IaaS clouds by specialists to deliver the scalability and distribution of any application and to aid make a company’s expenses predictable.
2) Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): This service provides business access to essential web infrastructure such as servers, connections, storage space, without the need to buy or manage internet infrastructure themselves.
3) Software as a Service (SaaS): This service offered by cloud computing is relatively mature and its phrases use those included in cloud computing. Cloud applications permit the cloud to be leveraged for software infrastructure. This reduces the burden of support, maintenance and operations because the application is run on computers that are owned by the vendor.
Question 169
Software products need perfective maintenance for which of the following reasons ?
A
To rectify bugs observed while the system is in use.
B
When the customers need the product to run on new platforms
C
To support the new features that users want it to support
D
To overcome wear and tear caused by the repeated use of the software.
       Software-Engineering       Software-Engineering       UGC NET CS 2018-DEC Paper-2
Question 169 Explanation: 
Maintenance: Maintenance can be referred as a process of enhancement in the software product according to the changing requirements of user.
4 types of maintenance
1. Adaptive – modifying the system to cope with changes in the software environment (DBMS, OS).
2. Perfective – implementing new or changed user requirements which concern functional enhancements to the software
3. Corrective – diagnosing and fixing errors, possibly ones found by users.
4. Preventive – increasing software maintainability or reliability to prevent problems in the future.
Question 170
The ______ of a program or computing system is the structure or structures of the system, which comprise software components, the externally visible properties of these components, and the relationship among them.
A
E-R diagram
B
Data flow diagram
C
Software architecture
D
Software design
       Software-Engineering       Software-requirements       UGC NET CS 2013 Sep-paper-2
Question 170 Explanation: 
The software architecture of a program or computing system is the structure or structures of the system, which comprise software components, the externally visible properties of these components, and the relationship among them.
Question 171
Working software is not available until late in the process in
A
Waterfall model
B
Prototyping model
C
Incremental model
D
Evolutionary Development model
       Software-Engineering       Waterfall-model       UGC NET CS 2013 Sep-paper-2
Question 171 Explanation: 
Waterfall Model: We can not go back in previous project phase as soon as as we proceed to next phase ,So inflexible
Advantages:
→Waterfall model is simple and easy to understand.
→It works as reference model for others.
Disadvantage:
→Real projects cannot be sequential
→Initially all requirements should known i.e requirements are frozen. It may be suited for static projects.
→Error omission too costly
→Maintenance is too costly(We have to redesign the whole project from scratch)
→Customer must have patience
→It is based on Big-Bang approach
Question 172
Equivalence partitioning is a ______ testing method that divides the input domain of a program into classes of data from which test cases can be derived.
A
White box
B
Black box
C
Regression
D
Smoke
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       UGC NET CS 2013 Sep-paper-2
Question 172 Explanation: 
Equivalence partitioning is a black box testing method that divides the input domain of a program into classes of data from which test cases can be derived.
Black box testing methods are
→Graph-Based Testing Methods
→Equivalence Partitioning
→Boundary Value Analysis
→Orthogonal Array Testing
Question 173
Consider the following characteristics :
(i) Correct and unambiguous
(ii) Complete and consistent
(iii) Ranked for importance and/or stability and verifiable
(iv) Modifiable and Traceable
Which of the following is true for a good SRS ?
A
(i), (ii) and (iii)
B
(i), (iii) and (iv)
C
(ii), (iii) and (iv)
D
(i), (ii), (iii) and (iv)
       Software-Engineering       Software-requirements       UGC NET CS 2013 Sep-paper-2
Question 173 Explanation: 
A good software requirement specification(SRS) characteristics are
→Correct and unambiguous
→Complete and consistent
→Ranked for importance and/or stability and verifiable
→Modifiable and Traceable
Question 174
Assume the following regarding the development of a software system P:
- Estimated lines of code of P : 33, 480 LOC
- Average productivity for P : 620 LOC per person-month
- Number of software developers : 6
- Average salary of a software developer : 50,000 per month
If E, D and C are the estimated development effort (in person-months), estimated development time (in months), and estimated development cost (in Lac) respectively, then (E, D, C) =
A
(48, 8, 24)
B
(54, 9, 27)
C
(60, 10, 30)
D
(42, 7, 21)
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2018 JUNE Paper-2
Question 174 Explanation: 
- Estimated lines of code of P : 33480 LOC
- Average productivity for P : 620 LOC per person-month
- Number of software developers : 6
- Average salary of a software developer : 50000 per month
Step-1: Estimated development effort (in person-months)= 33480 /620
E=54
Step-2: Estimated development time (in months) =54/6
D= 9 months
Step-3: Estimated development cost (in Lac) = 50000*6*9
=27 lacs
Question 175
Match the following in Software Engineering :
A
(a)-(ii), (b)-(iii), (c)-(iv), (d)-(i)
B
(a)-(iii), (b)- (i), (c)-(iv), (d)-(ii)
C
(a)-(iv), (b)- (i), (c)-(ii), (d)-(iii)
D
(a)-(iii), (b)- (iv), (c)-(i), (d)-(ii)
       Software-Engineering       Software-requirements       UGC NET CS 2018 JUNE Paper-2
Question 175 Explanation: 
→ Coupling and Cohesion are used in software design. Cohesion measures strength of a module while coupling measures interdependency between modules.
→ Software cost estimation must be done more diligently throughout the project life cycle so that in the future there are fewer surprises and unforeseen delays in the release of a product.
→ Validation Technique→ Symbolic Execution
→ Software Requirements Definition→ Structured System Analysis
Question 176
Which one of the following is not typically provided by Source Code Management Software ?
A
Synchronisation
B
Versioning and Revision history
C
Syntax highlighting
D
Project forking
       Software-Engineering       Software-configuration-management       UGC NET CS 2018 JUNE Paper-2
Question 176 Explanation: 
Source Code Management Software is the management of changes to documents, computer programs, large web sites, and other collections of information. Changes are usually identified by a number or letter code, termed the "revision number", "revision level", or simply "revision".
→ Source Code Management Software includes
1. Synchronisation
2. Versioning and Revision history
3. Project forking
Question 177
A software system crashed 20 times in the year 2017 and for each crash, it took 2 minutes to restart. Approximately, what was the software availability in that year ?
A
96.9924%
B
97.9924%
C
98.9924%
D
99.9924%
       Software-Engineering       Software-Availability       UGC NET CS 2018 JUNE Paper-2
Question 177 Explanation: 
Software availability:​ It is a software used to ensure that systems are running and available most of the time. High availability is a high percentage of time that the system is functioning. It can be formally defined as (1 – (down time/ total time))*100%. Although the minimum required availability varies by task, systems typically attempt to achieve 99.999% (5-nines) availability. This characteristic is weaker than fault tolerance, which typically seeks to provide 100% availability, albeit with significant price and performance penalties.
Given data,
-Software crashed 20 times in the year 2017
-each crash=2 minutes to restart.
-Software availability=?
1 year=365 days = 365*1440 minutes =525600 minutes.
→ Crash time =20*2
=40 minutes
→ Software availability = (525600-40) / 525600
= 0.999924
= (0.999924 * 100)
= 99.9924 %
Question 178
Coupling is a measure of the strength of the interconnections between software modules. Which of the following are correct statements with respect to module coupling ?
P : Common coupling occurs when one module controls the flow of another module by passing it information on what to do.
Q : In data coupling, the complete data structure is passed from one module to another through parameters.
R : Stamp coupling occurs when modules share a composite data structure and use only parts of it.
A
P and Q only
B
P and R only
C
Q and R only
D
All of P, Q and R
       Software-Engineering       Software-process-models       UGC NET CS 2018 JUNE Paper-2
Question 178 Explanation: 
Common Coupling:​ Common coupling occurs if two modules share same global data.
Data Coupling :​ Data coupling occurs when two modules communicate using elementary data items that are passed as parameters between two modules.
Stamp Coupling​ : Stamp coupling occurs if two modules communicate using composite items such as records in Pascal or structure in C
Question 179
A software design pattern often used to restrict access to an object is :
A
adapter
B
decorator
C
delegation
D
proxy
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2018 JUNE Paper-2
Question 179 Explanation: 
Proxy pattern:​ a class functioning as an interface to another thing. In the proxy, extra functionality can be provided, for example caching when operations on the real object are resource intensive, or checking preconditions before operations on the real object are invoked.
→ For the client, usage of a proxy object is similar to using the real object, because both implement the same interface.
→ Proxy pattern solve the access to an object should be controlled and functionality should be provided when accessing an object.
→ When accessing sensitive objects, for example, it should be possible to check that clients have the needed access rights.
Question 180
Reasons to re-engineer a software include :
P : Allow legacy software to quickly adapt to the changing requirements
Q : Upgrade to newer technologies/platforms/paradigm (for example, object-oriented)
R : Improve software maintainability
S : Allow change in the functionality and architecture of the software
A
P, R and S only
B
P and R only
C
P, Q and S only
D
P, Q and R only
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2018 JUNE Paper-2
Question 180 Explanation: 
→ Software re-engineering is the examination and alteration of a system to reconstitute it in a new form.​ It is done to improve the maintainability of the software.
→ Software reengineering encompasses inventory analysis, document restructuring, reverse engineering, program and data restructuring, and forward engineering. The intent of these activities is to create versions of existing programs that exhibit higher quality and better Maintainability.
A software reengineering process model:
Question 181
Which of the following is not a key strategy followed by the clean room approach to software development ?
A
Formal specification
B
Dynamic verification
C
Incremental development
D
Statistical testing of the system
       Software-Engineering       Software-Development       UGC NET CS 2018 JUNE Paper-2
Question 181 Explanation: 
The basic principles of the clean room process are
1. Software development based on formal methods: Software tool support based on some mathematical formalism includes model checking, process algebras, and Petri nets. The Box Structure Method might be one such means of specifying and designing a software product. Verification that the design correctly implements the specification is performed through team review, often with software tool support.
2. Incremental implementation under statistical quality control Cleanroom development uses an iterative approach, in which the product is developed in increments that gradually increase the implemented functionality. The quality of each increment is measured against pre-established standards to verify that the development process is proceeding acceptably. A failure to meet quality standards results in the cessation of testing for the current increment, and a return to the design phase.
3. Statistically sound testing
Software testing in the cleanroom process is carried out as a statistical experiment. Based on the formal specification, a representative subset of software input/output trajectories is selected and tested. This sample is then statistically analyzed to produce an estimate of the reliability of the software, and a level of confidence in that estimate.
Question 182
Which of the following statements is/are True ?
P : Refactoring is the process of changing a software system in such a way that it does not alter the external behavior of the code yet improves the internal architecture.
Q : An example of refactoring is adding new features to satisfy a customer requirement discovered after a project is shipped.
A
P only
B
Q only
C
Both P and Q
D
Neither P nor Q
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2018 JUNE Paper-2
Question 182 Explanation: 
→ Refactoring allows a software engineer to improve the internal structure of a design (or source code) without changing its external functionality or behavior of the code yet improves the internal structure. In essence, refactoring can be used to improve the efficiency, readability, or performance of a design or the code that implements a design.
→ It is a disciplined way to clean up code [and modify/simplify the internal design] that minimizes the chances of introducing bugs. In essence, when you refactor you are improving the design of the code after it has been written.
Note: It won’t add any new featuring to satisfy a customer requirement. So, statement Q is false.
Question 183
Basis path testing falls under
A
system testing
B
white box testing
C
white box testing
D
unit testing
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       UGC NET CS 2012 Dec-Paper-2
Question 183 Explanation: 
White-box test design techniques include the following code coverage criteria: →Control flow testing
→Data flow testing
→Branch testing
→Statement coverage
→Decision coverage
→Modified condition/decision coverage
→Prime path testing
→Path testing
Question 184
______ is an “umbrella” activity that is applied throughout the software engineering process.
A
Debugging
B
Testing
C
Designing
D
Software quality assurance
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2012 Dec-Paper-2
Question 184 Explanation: 
Umbrella Activities 1. Software project tracking and control 2. Risk Management 3. Software Quality Assurance 4. Technical review 5. Software Configuration management 6. Reusability management 7. Work Product preparation and production
Question 185
The relationship of data elements in a module is called
A
Coupling
B
Modularity
C
Cohesion
D
Granularity
       Software-Engineering       Coupling-and-Cohesion       UGC NET CS 2013 Dec-paper-2
Question 185 Explanation: 
→ Cohesion is a measure of internal strength within a module and relationship of data elements in a module, whereas coupling is a measure of inter dependency among the modules.
→ In the context of modular software design there should be high cohesion and low coupling.
Question 186
Software Configuration Management is the discipline for systematically controlling
A
the changes due to the evolution of work products as the project proceeds.
B
the changes due to defects (bugs) being found and then fixed.
C
the changes due to requirement changes
D
all of the above
       Software-Engineering       Software-configuration-management       UGC NET CS 2013 Dec-paper-2
Question 186 Explanation: 
Software Configuration Management is the discipline for systematically controlling
1. The changes due to the evolution of work products as the project proceeds.
2. The changes due to defects(bugs) being found and then fixed.
3. The changes due to requirement changes
Question 187
Which one of the following is not a step of requirement engineering ?
A
Requirement elicitation
B
Requirement analysis
C
Requirement design
D
Requirement documentation
       Software-Engineering       Software-requirements       UGC NET CS 2013 Dec-paper-2
Question 187 Explanation: 
Requirements engineering (RE) refers to the process of defining, documenting and maintaining requirements in the engineering design process.
Requirement Analysis Steps:
1. Requirements inception or requirements elicitation: Developers and stakeholders meet, the latter are inquired concerning their needs and wants regarding the software product.
2. Requirements analysis and negotiation: Requirements are identified (including new ones if the development is iterative) and conflicts with stakeholders are solved. Both written and graphical tools (the latter commonly used in the design phase but some find them helpful at this stage, too) are successfully used as aids.
3. System modeling: Some engineering fields (or specific situations) require the product to be completely designed and modeled before its construction or fabrication starts and, therefore, the design phase must be performed in advance.
4. Requirements specification: Requirements are documented in a formal artifact called a Requirements Specification (RS), which will become official only after validation.
5. Requirements validation: Checking that the documented requirements and models are consistent and meet the needs of the stakeholder. Only if the final draft passes the validation process, the RS becomes official.
6. Requirements management: Managing all the activities related to the requirements since inception, supervising as the system is developed and, even until after it is put into use (e. g., changes, extensions, etc.)
Question 188
Testing of software with actual data and in actual environment is called
A
Alpha testing
B
Beta testing
C
Regression testing
D
None of the above
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       UGC NET CS 2013 Dec-paper-2
Question 188 Explanation: 
→ Alpha test: is conducted at the developer’s site by end-users and conducted in a controlled environment
→ Beta test: is conducted at end-user sites and it is a “live” application of the software in an environment that cannot be controlled by the developer
→ Regression test: Testing is an important strategy for reducing “side effects” when major change is made to the software
Question 189
Electronic Data Interchange Software consists of the following four layers :
A
Business application, Internal format conversion, Network translator, EDI envelope
B
Business application, Internal format conversion, EDI translator, EDI envelope
C
Application layer, Transport layer, EDI translator, EDI envelope
D
Application layer, Transport layer, IP layer, EDI envelope
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       UGC NET CS 2013 Dec-paper-2
Question 189 Explanation: 
Electronic Data Interchange(EDI) software consists of the following 4 layers
1. Business application
2. Internal format conversion
3. EDI translator
4. EDI envelope

Question 190
Main aim of software engineering is to produce
A
program
B
software
C
within budget
D
software within budget in the given schedule
       Software-Engineering       Software-requirements       UGC NET CS 2012 June-Paper2
Question 190 Explanation: 
Main aim of software engineering is to produce software within budget in the given schedule.
Question 191
Key process areas of CMM level 4 are also classified by a process which is
A
CMM level 2
B
CMM level 3
C
CMM level 5
D
All of the above
       Software-Engineering       Software-Development       UGC NET CS 2012 June-Paper2
Question 191 Explanation: 
CMM stands for Capability Maturity Model is a process model which specifies the process improvement approach in software development.
CMM levels:
1. Initial
2. Repeatable
3. Defined
4. Managed
5. Optimizing
Level-4 (Managed): the process is quantitatively managed in accordance with agreed-upon metrics. It also classified by a process which is in level-5.
Level-5(Optimizing): Process management includes deliberate process optimization (or) improvement.
Question 192
Validation means
A
are we building the product right
B
are we building the right product
C
verification of fields
D
None of the above
       Software-Engineering       Software-Development       UGC NET CS 2012 June-Paper2
Question 192 Explanation: 
Verification and validation are not the same things, although they are often confused. Boehm succinctly expressed the difference as
→ Verification: Are we building the product right?
→ Validation: Are we building the right product?
Question 193
In a function oriented design, we
A
minimize cohesion and maximize coupling
B
maximize cohesion and minimize coupling
C
maximize cohesion and maximize coupling
D
minimize cohesion and minimize coupling
       Software-Engineering       Coupling-and-Cohesion       UGC NET CS 2012 June-Paper2
Question 193 Explanation: 
→ Cohesion is a measure of internal strength within a module, whereas coupling is a measure of inter dependency among the modules.
→ In a functional oriented design/modular software design there should be high cohesion and low coupling.
→ It requires High Fan-In and Low fan-out.
Question 194
Reliability of software is directly dependent on
A
quality of the design
B
number of errors present
C
software engineers experience
D
user requirement
       Software-Engineering       Software-Reliabiliy       UGC NET CS 2012 June-Paper2
Question 194 Explanation: 
→ Reliability of software is directly dependent on number of errors present.
→ Software Reliability is the probability of failure-free software operation for a specified period of time in a specified environment.
→ The program does not fail for a specified time in a given environment
Question 195
For a data entry project for office staff who have never used computers before (user interface and user friendliness are extremely important), one will use
A
Spiral model
B
Component based model
C
Prototyping
D
Waterfall model
       Software-Engineering       Types-of-Models       UGC NET CS 2011 Dec-Paper-2
Question 196
An SRS
A
establishes the basis for agreement between client and the supplier.
B
provides a reference for validation of the final product.
C
is a prerequisite to high quality software.
D
all of the above.
       Software-Engineering       Software-requirement-specification       UGC NET CS 2011 Dec-Paper-2
Question 196 Explanation: 
→ Software Requirement Specification(SRS) establishes the basis for agreement between client and the supplier. It provides a reference for validation of the final product. SRS is a prerequisite to high quality software.
→ The system is considered as a black box whose internal details are not known that is, only its visible external (input/output) behavior is documented.
→ The Software Requirement Specification(SRS) is said to be Consistent if and only if no subset of individual requirements described in it conflict with each other.
Question 197
McCabe’s cyclomatic metric V(G) of a graph G with n vertices, e edges and p connected component ise
A
e
B
n
C
e – n + p
D
e – n + 2p
       Software-Engineering       Cyclomatic-metric       UGC NET CS 2011 Dec-Paper-2
Question 197 Explanation: 
Cyclomatic complexity uses 3 formulas
1. Number of regions + 1
2. Predicate + 1
3.Edges-Vertices+2(Connected components)
As per the above question, c=cyclomatic complexity
e=number of edges
n=number of vertices
p=predicates
Question 198
Emergency fixes known as patches are result of
A
adaptive maintenance
B
perfective maintenance
C
corrective maintenance
D
none of the above
       Software-Engineering       Software-configuration-management       UGC NET CS 2011 Dec-Paper-2
Question 198 Explanation: 
Software maintenance is the modification of a software product after delivery to correct faults, to improve performance or other attributes.
Software maintenance types: 1. Adaptive: modifying the system to cope with changes in the software environment (DBMS, OS)
2. Perfective: Implementing new or changed user requirements which concern functional enhancements to the software.
3. Corrective: Diagnosing and fixing errors, possibly ones found by users.
4. Preventive: Increasing software maintainability or reliability to prevent problems in the future.
Question 199
Design recovery from source code is done during
A
reverse engineering
B
re-engineering
C
reuse
D
all of the above
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2011 Dec-Paper-2
Question 199 Explanation: 
Design recovery from source code is done during reverse engineering, re-engineering and reusability.
Question 200
Following is used to demonstrate that the new release of software still performs the old one did by rerunning the old tests :
A
Functional testing
B
Path testing
C
Stress testing
D
Regression testing
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       UGC NET CS 2011 Dec-Paper-2
Question 200 Explanation: 
→ Regression testing is re-running functional and non-functional tests to ensure that previously developed and tested software still performs after a change. If not, that would be called a regression.
→ Changes that may require regression testing include bug fixes, software enhancements, configuration changes, and even substitution of electronic components.
→ As regression test suites tend to grow with each found defect, test automation is frequently involved.
Question 201
Software risk estimation involves following two tasks :
A
Risk magnitude and risk impact
B
Risk probability and risk impact
C
Risk maintenance and risk impact
D
Risk development and risk impact
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       UGC NET CS 2011 Dec-Paper-2
Question 201 Explanation: 
Software Risk estimation involves risk probability and risk impact.
Risk impact factors are
1. Negligible [low]
2. Marginal
3. Critical
4. Catastrophic [High]
Risk exposure:
RE=P*C
P=The probability of occurrence for a risk
C=The cost to the project should the risk actually occur
Question 202
Which one of the items listed below is not one of the software engineering layers ?
A
Process
B
Manufacturing
C
Method
D
Tools
       Software-Engineering       Layers       UGC NET CS 2011 June-Paper-2
Question 202 Explanation: 
- Software Engineering is divided into four layers:
1. A quality Process
- Any engineering approach must rest on an quality.
- The "Bedrock" that supports software Engineering is Quality Focus.
2. Process
- Foundation for software engineering is the Process Layer.
- Software engineering process holds all the technology layers together and enables the timely development of computer software.
- It forms the base for management control of software project.
3. Methods
- Software engineering methods provide the "Technical Questions" for building Software.
- Methods contain a broad array of tasks that include communication requirement analysis, design modelling, program construction testing and support.
4. Tools
- Software engineering tools provide automated or semi-automated support for the "Process" and "Methods".
- Tools are integrated so that information created by one tool can be used by another.
Question 203
What is the first stage in program development ?
A
Specification and design
B
System Analysis
C
Testing
D
None of the above
       Software-Engineering       Software-Development       UGC NET CS 2011 June-Paper-2
Question 203 Explanation: 
Stages in program development:
1. System Analysis
2. Specification and design
3. Coding and unit testing
4. Maintenance
Question 204
Which of these are the 5 generic software engineering framework activities ?
A
Communication, planning, modelling, construction, deployment
B
Communication, risk management, measurement, production, reviewing
C
Analysis, designing, programming, Debugging, maintenance
D
Analysis, planning, designing, programming, testing
       Software-Engineering       Layers       UGC NET CS 2011 June-Paper-2
Question 204 Explanation: 
The following generic process framework is applicable to the vast majority of S/W projects.
1,Communication: involves heavy communication with the customer (and other stakeholders) and encompasses requirements gathering.
2. Planning: Describes the technical tasks to be conducted, the risks that are likely, resources that will be required, the work products to be produced and a work schedule.
3. Modeling: encompasses the creation of models that allow the developer and customer to better understand S/W req. and the design that will achieve those req.
4. Construction: combines code generation and the testing required uncovering errors in the code.
5. Deployment: deliver the product to the customer who evaluates the delivered product and provides feedback.
Question 205
Many causes of the software crisis can be traced to mythology based on
A
Management Myths
B
Customer Myths
C
Practitioner Myths
D
All of the above
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       UGC NET CS 2011 June-Paper-2
Question 205 Explanation: 
Many causes of the software crisis can be traced to mythology based on management Myths,Customer Myths and Practitioner Myths.
Question 206
COCOMO stands for
A
COmposite COst MOdel
B
COnstructive COst MOdel
C
COnstructive Composite MOdel
D
COmprehensive Construction MOdel
       Software-Engineering       COCOMO-Model       UGC NET CS 2013 June-paper-2
Question 206 Explanation: 
COCOMO stands for COnstructive COst MOdel. It is a procedural software cost estimation model but not software process model. Linear sequential,prototype and spiral models are software process models.
The basic COCOMO equations take the form
1. Effort Applied (E) = a(KLOC)b [ man-months ]
2. Development Time (D) = c(Effort Applied)d [months]
3. People required (P) = Effort Applied / Development Time [count]
Question 207
While estimating the cost of software, Lines Of Code(LOC) and Function Points(FP) are used to measure which one of the following ?
A
Length of code
B
Size of software
C
Functionality of software
D
None of the above
       Software-Engineering       Software-requirements       UGC NET CS 2013 June-paper-2
Question 207 Explanation: 
→ A function point is a "unit of measurement" to express the amount of business functionality an information system (as a product) provides to a user. Function points are used to compute a functional size measurement (FSM) of software. The cost (in dollars or hours) of a single unit is calculated from past projects.
→ Lines of code (LOC) is a software metric used to measure the size of a computer program by counting the number of lines in the text of the program's source code.
Question 208
A good software design must have
A
High module coupling, High module cohesion
B
High module coupling, Low module cohesion
C
Low module coupling, High module cohesion
D
Low module coupling, Low module cohesion
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2013 June-paper-2
Question 208 Explanation: 
→ A good software design must have low module coupling and high module cohesion.
→ Coupling and Cohesion are used in software design. Cohesion measures strength of a module while coupling measures interdependency between modules.
Question 209
“Black” refers in the “Black-box” testing means
A
Characters of the movie “Black”
B
I–O is hidden
C
Design is hidden
D
Users are hidden
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       UGC NET CS 2010 Dec-Paper-2
Question 209 Explanation: 
Black box testing means design is hidden. Specific knowledge of the application's code, internal structure and programming knowledge in general is not required.
Question 210
Prototyping is used to
A
test the software as an end product
B
expand design details
C
refine and establish requirements gathering
D
None of the above
       Software-Engineering       Software-requirements       UGC NET CS 2010 Dec-Paper-2
Question 210 Explanation: 
Prototyping is used to refine and establish requirements gathering. The quick design of a software that is visible to end users leads to prototype model.
Advantages: 1. We can develop software where requirements are unclear
2. Customer satisfaction
Disadvantage:
1. Who pay cost of prototype
2. Required the design expertise
3. Throwaway approach (or) evolutionary approach ( In this approach we develop the software by enhancing protype)
Question 211
Which one of these are not software maintenance activity ?
A
Error correction
B
Adaptation
C
Implementation of Enhancement
D
Establishing scope
       Software-Engineering       Software-configuration-management       UGC NET CS 2010 Dec-Paper-2
Question 211 Explanation: 
Software maintenance is the modification of a software product after delivery to correct faults, to improve performance or other attributes.
Software maintenance types: 1. Adaptive: modifying the system to cope with changes in the software environment (DBMS, OS)
2. Perfective: Implementing new or changed user requirements which concern functional enhancements to the software.
3. Corrective: Diagnosing and fixing errors, possibly ones found by users.
4. Preventive: Increasing software maintainability or reliability to prevent problems in the future.
Question 212
The system specification is the first deliverable in the computer system engineering process which does not include
A
Functional Description
B
Cost
C
Schedule
D
Technical Analysis
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2010 Dec-Paper-2
Question 212 Explanation: 
→ The system specification is the first deliverable in the computer system engineering process which does not include functional description.
→ The system specification document describes the system and gives a high-level view of what the system will provide. The system specification is the guide that will allow details on hardware,software and test requirements.
Question 213
The COCOMO model was introduced in the book title “Software Engineering Economics” authored by
A
Abraham Silberschatz
B
Barry Boehm
C
C.J. Date
D
D.E. Knuth
       Software-Engineering       COCOMO-Model       UGC NET CS 2010 Dec-Paper-2
Question 213 Explanation: 
The COCOMO model was introduced in the book title “Software Engineering Economics” authored by Barry Boehm.
Question 214
Software engineering primarily aims on
A
reliable software
B
cost effective software
C
reliable and cost effective software
D
none of the above
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2010 June-Paper-2
Question 214 Explanation: 
Software engineering primarily aims on reliable and cost effective software.
Question 215
Which model is simplest model in Software Development ?
A
Waterfall model
B
Prototyping
C
Iterative
D
None of these
       Software-Engineering       Types-of-Models       UGC NET CS 2010 June-Paper-2
Question 215 Explanation: 
Waterfall model is simplest and oldest software development life cycle model.
Question 216
Design phase will usually be
A
top-down
B
bottom-up
C
random
D
centre fringing
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2010 June-Paper-2
Question 216 Explanation: 
Design phase will usually be top-down approach.
Question 217
Applications-software
A
is used to control the operating system
B
includes programs designed to help programmers
C
performs a specific task for computer users
D
all of the above
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2010 June-Paper-2
Question 217 Explanation: 
Applications software performs a specific task for computer users.
Question 218
In the light of software engineering software consists of :
A
Programs
B
Data
C
Documentation
D
All of the above
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2009-June-Paper-2
Question 218 Explanation: 
In the light of software engineering software consists of programs,data and documentation.
Question 219
Which one of the following ISO standard is used for software process ?
A
ISO 9000
B
ISO 9001
C
ISO 9003
D
ISO 9000–3
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2009-June-Paper-2
Question 219 Explanation: 
ISO 9003 is "Quality systems-Model for quality assurance in final inspection and test".
ISO 9001 is a non-industry specific certification.
ISO 9000 refers to the family of standards including ISO 9000, ISO 9001, ISO 9004 and ISO 19011.
Question 220
Which of the following is used for test data generation ?
A
White Box
B
Black Box
C
Boundary value analysis
D
All of the above
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       UGC NET CS 2009-June-Paper-2
Question 220 Explanation: 
Boundary testing is the process of testing between extreme ends or boundaries between partitions of the input values. It is used to test data generation.
Question 221
Reverse engineering is the process which deals with :
A
Size measurement
B
Cost measurement
C
Design recovery
D
All of the above
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2009-June-Paper-2
Question 221 Explanation: 
Design recovery from source code is done during reverse engineering, re-engineering and reusability.
Question 222
Software Engineering is a discipline that integrates _________ for the development of computer software.
A
Process
B
Methods
C
Tools
D
All
       Software-Engineering       Software-Development       UGC NET CS 2009 Dec-Paper-2
Question 222 Explanation: 
Software Engineering is a discipline that integrates process,methods and tools for the development of computer software.
Process:
- Foundation for software engineering is the Process Layer.
- Software engineering process holds all the technology layers together and enables the timely development of computer software.
- It forms the base for management control of software project.
Methods:
- Software engineering methods provide the "Technical Questions" for building Software.
- Methods contain a broad array of tasks that include communication requirement analysis, design modelling, program construction testing and support.
Tools:
- Software engineering tools provide automated or semi-automated support for the "Process" and "Methods".
- Tools are integrated so that information created by one tool can be used by another.
Question 223
Any error whose cause cannot be identified anywhere within the software system is called ________
A
Internal error
B
External error
C
Inherent error
D
Logic error
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       UGC NET CS 2009 Dec-Paper-2
Question 223 Explanation: 
Internal errors are due to faulty logic or coding in the program.
1. Bounds errors
2. Inserting a null pointer into a collection
3. Attempting to use a bad date
External errors are due to events beyond the scope of the program.
1. Not easily predicted in advance
2. Encountered at more abstract levels
3. Not costly to detect
4. Detected in both the production and the debug versions of the library
Logical errors(or) semantic errors:
Logical errors are syntactically correct but it will generate error during execution.
1. Divide by zero
Inherent errors in the statement of the problem are called inherent errors.
Question 224
Recorded software attributes can be used in the following endeavours :
(i) Cost and schedule estimates.
(ii) Software product reliability predictions.
(iii) Managing the development process.
(iv) Nowhere
A
(i) (ii) (iv)
B
(ii) (iii) (iv)
C
(i) (ii) (iii)
D
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
       Software-Engineering       Software-configuration-management       UGC NET CS 2009 Dec-Paper-2
Question 224 Explanation: 
Recorded software attributes can be used to
1. Cost and schedule estimates.
2. Software product reliability predictions.
3. Managing the development process.
Question 225
Black Box testing is done
A
to show that s/w is operational at its interfaces i.e. input and output.
B
to examine internal details of code.
C
at client side.
D
none of above.
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       UGC NET CS 2009 Dec-Paper-2
Question 225 Explanation: 
Black Box testing is done to show that s/w is operational at its interfaces i.e. input and output.
Black box testing methods are
1. Graph-Based Testing Methods
2. Equivalence Partitioning
3. Boundary Value Analysis
4. Orthogonal Array Testing
Question 226
Software Quality Assurance (SQA) encompasses :
A
Verification
B
Validation
C
Both verification and validation
D
None of the above
       Software-Engineering       Software-quality       UGC NET CS 2008 Dec-Paper-2
Question 226 Explanation: 
→ Software Quality Assurance (SQA) encompasses both verification and validation.
→ Verification and validation are not the same things, although they are often confused. Boehm succinctly expressed the difference as
→ Verification: Are we building the product right?
→ Validation: Are we building the right product?
Question 227
COCOMO model is used for :
A
Product quality estimation
B
Product complexity estimation
C
Product cost estimation
D
All of the above
       Software-Engineering       COCOMO-Model       UGC NET CS 2008 Dec-Paper-2
Question 227 Explanation: 
COCOMO model is used for product cost estimation.
Question 228
Waterfall model for software development is :
A
a top down approach.
B
a bottom up approach.
C
a sequential approach.
D
a consequential approach.
       Software-Engineering       Waterfall-model       UGC NET CS 2008-june-Paper-2
Question 228 Explanation: 
Waterfall model for software development is a linear or sequential approach.
Phases:
1. Feasibility study
2. Analysis
3. Design
4. Coding & Unit testing
5. Integration & System Testing
6. Maintenance
Question 229
In software development, value adjustment factors include the following among others :
A
the criticality of the performance and reusability of the code.
B
number of lines of code in the software.
C
number of technical manpower and hardware costs.
D
time period available and the level of user friendliness.
       Software-Engineering       Software-Development       UGC NET CS 2008-june-Paper-2
Question 229 Explanation: 
→ Value adjustment factors include the criticality of the performance and reusability of the code.
→ 14 Value adjustment factors are using in functional points maximum.
Question 230
While designing the user interface, one should :
A
use as many short cuts as possible.
B
use as many defaults as possible.
C
use as many visual layouts as possible.
D
reduce the demand on short-term memory.
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2008-june-Paper-2
Question 230 Explanation: 
→ While designing the user interface, one should reduce the demand on short-term memory.
Question 231
In software cost estimation, base estimation is related to :
A
cost of similar projects already completed.
B
cost of the base model of the present project.
C
cost of the project with the base minimum profit.
D
cost of the project under ideal situations.
       Software-Engineering       Software-configuration-management       UGC NET CS 2008-june-Paper-2
Question 231 Explanation: 
In software cost estimation, base estimation is related to cost of similar projects already completed.
Question 232
In cleanroom software engineering :
A
only eco-friendly hardware is used.
B
only hired facilities are used for development.
C
correctness of the code is verified before testing.
D
implementation is done only after ensuring correctness.
       Software-Engineering       Software-Development       UGC NET CS 2008-june-Paper-2
Question 232 Explanation: 
In cleanroom software engineering implementation is done only after ensuring correctness.
Clean-room Strategy:
Cleanroom software engineering (CSE) is a process model that removes defects before they can precipitate serious hazards. It is a team-oriented, theory based software, which is developed using the formal methods, correctness verification and Statistical Quality Assurance (SQA).
→ Clean room management is based on the incremental model of software development, which accumulates into the final product. The approach combines mathematical-based methods of software specification, design and correctness verification with statistical, usage-based testing to certify software fitness for use.
→ The main goal of clean room engineering is to produce zero error-based software by allowing correct designs, which avoid rework.
Question 233
A major defect in waterfall model in software development is that :
A
the documentation is difficult
B
a blunder at any stage can be disastrous
C
a trial version is available only at the end of the project
D
the maintenance of the software is difficult
       Software-Engineering       Waterfall-model       UGC NET CS 2007-Dec-Paper-2
Question 233 Explanation: 
A major defect in waterfall model in software development is that a trial version is available only at the end of the project.
Question 234
Function point metric of a software also depends on the :
A
number of function needed
B
number of final users of the software
C
number of external inputs and outputs
D
time required for one set of output from a set of input data
       Software-Engineering       Software-design       UGC NET CS 2007-Dec-Paper-2
Question 234 Explanation: 
Function point metric of a software also depends on the number of external inputs and outputs.
Question 235
System development cost estimation with use-cases is problematic because :
A
of paucity of examples
B
the data can be totally incorrect
C
the expertise and resource available are not used
D
the problem is being over simplified
       Software-Engineering       Software-Development       UGC NET CS 2007-Dec-Paper-2
Question 235 Explanation: 
System development cost estimation with use-cases is problematic because the data can be totally incorrect.
Question 236
The approach to software testing is to design test cases to :
A
break the software
B
understand the software
C
analyse the design of sub processes in the software
D
analyze the output of the software
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       UGC NET CS 2007-Dec-Paper-2
Question 236 Explanation: 
The approach to software testing is to design test cases to break the software.
Question 237
Which of the following combination is preferred with respect to cohesion and coupling :
A
low and low
B
low and high
C
high and low
D
high and high
       Software-Engineering       Coupling-and-Cohesion       UGC NET CS 2007 June-Paper-2
Question 237 Explanation: 
→ Cohesion is a measure of internal strength within a module, whereas coupling is a measure of inter dependency among the modules.
→ So in the context of modular software design there should be high cohesion and low coupling.
Question 238
Match the following :

Which of the following is true :
A
(a)-(ii), (b)-(iii), (c)-(iv), (d)-(i)
B
(a)-(i), (b)-(ii), (c)-(iv), (d)-(iii)
C
(a)-(iii), (b)-(iv), (c)-(i), (d)-(ii)
D
None of the above
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       UGC NET CS 2007 June-Paper-2
Question 238 Explanation: 

Question 239
Problems with waterfall model are :
    1. Real projects rarely follow this model proposes
    2. It is often difficult for the customer
    3. Working model is available only in the end
    4. Developers are delayed unnecessarily
  Which of the following is true :
A
1 and 4 only
B
2 and 3 only
C
1, 2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, 3 and 4
       Software-Engineering       Waterfall-model       UGC NET CS 2007 June-Paper-2
Question 239 Explanation: 
Problems with waterfall model are
1. Real projects rarely follow this model proposes
2. It is often difficult for the customer
3. Working model is available only in the end
4. Developers are delayed unnecessarily
Question 240
Statistical software quality assurance in software engineering involves __________ .
A
using sampling in place of exhaustive testing of software.
B
surveying customers to find out their opinions about product quality.
C
tracing each defect to its underlying cause, isolating the vital few causes, and moving to correct them.
D
tracing each defect to its underlying causes, and using the Pareto principle to correct each problem found.
       Software-Engineering       Software-quality       UGC NET CS 2017 Nov- paper-3
Question 240 Explanation: 
→ Statistical software quality assurance in software engineering involves tracing each defect to its underlying cause, isolating the vital few causes, and moving to correct them.
→ Statistical software quality assurance uses pareto principle to identify vital causes (80% of defects can be traced to 20% of causes) and moves to correct the problems that have caused the defects.
Question 241
Which of the following statements is/are FALSE with respect to software testing ?
S1 : White-box tests are based on specifications; better at telling whether program meets specification, better at finding errors of omission.
S2 : Black- box tests are based on code; better for finding crashes, out of bounds errors, file not closed errors.
S3 : Alpha testing is conducted at the developer’s site by a team of highly skilled testers for software that is developed as a product to be used by many customers.
A
Only S1 and S2 are FALSE.
B
Only S1 and S3 are FALSE.
C
Only S2 and S3 are FALSE.
D
All of S1, S2, and S3 are FALSE.
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       UGC NET CS 2017 Nov- paper-3
Question 241 Explanation: 
FALSE: Black box tests are based on specifications; better at telling whether program meets specification, better at finding errors of omission.
FALSE: White box tests are based on code; better for finding crashes, out of bounds errors, file not closed errors.
TRUE: Alpha testing is conducted at the developer’s site by a team of highly skilled testers for software that is developed as a product to be used by many customers.
Question 242
A signal processor software is expected to operate for 91.25 days after repair, and the mean software repair time is expected to be 5 minutes. Then, the availability of the software is:
A
96.9862%
B
97.9862%
C
98.9962%
D
99.9962%
       Software-Engineering       Software-quality       UGC NET CS 2017 Nov- paper-3
Question 242 Explanation: 
Given data,
-- Software expected to operate after repair(MTBF) = 91.25 days
= 91.25 * 24 hours
= 2190 hours
-- Mean software repair time(MTTR) = 5 mins
= 5/60 hrs
= 0.083 hrs
-- Software Availability=?
Step-1: Software Availability =MTBF / (MTBF + MTTR)
= [2190 / (2190 + 0.083)]*100
= (2190 / 2190.083)*100
= 0.9996211481 * 100
= 99.9962%
Question 243
Consider the method mcq ( ):
int mcq(boolean a, boolean b, boolean c, boolean d)
{
   int ans=1;
   if(a) { ans = 2; }
   else if (b) { ans = 3; }
   else if (c) {
                      if (d) { ans = 4; }
   return ans;
}
if
M1 = Number of tests to exhaustively test mcq( );
M2 = Minimum number of tests to achieve full statement coverage for mcq( ); and
M3 = Minimum number of tests to achieve full branch coverage for mcq( );
then (M1, M2, M3) = __________.
A
(16, 3, 5)
B
(8, 5, 3)
C
(8, 3, 5)
D
(16, 4, 4)
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing       UGC NET CS 2017 Nov- paper-3
Question 243 Explanation: 


Question 244
A simple stand - alone software utility is to be developed in ‘C’ programming by a team of software experts for a computer running Linux and the overall size of this software is estimated to be 20,000 lines of code. Considering (a, b) = (2.4, 1.05) as multiplicative and exponention factor for the basic COCOMO effort estimation equation and (c, d) = (2.5, 0.38) as multiplicative and exponention factor for the basic COCOMO development time estimation equation, approximately how long does the software project take to complete ?
A
10.52 months
B
11.52 months
C
12.52 months
D
14.52 months
       Software-Engineering       COCOMO-Model       UGC NET CS 2017 Nov- paper-3
Question 244 Explanation: 
Given data,
-- lines of code(LOC)= 20,000 (or 20K)
-- Multiplicative value ‘a’=2.4
-- Exponential ‘b’=1.05
-- Basic COCOMO formula= a*(LOC in K)b
-- Multiplicative value ‘c’=2.5
-- Exponential ‘d’=0.38
-- Development=c*(basic COCOMO result)d
Step-1: Basic COCOMO formula= a*(LOC in K)b
= 2.4*(20)1.05
= 55.756
Step-2: Development= c*(basic COCOMO result)d
= 2.5(55.756)0.38
= 11.52 months
Question 245
In Software Configuration Management (SCM), which of the following is a use-case supported by standard version control systems ?
(a) Managing several versions or releases of a software
(b) Filing bug reports and tracking their progress
(c) Allowing team members to work in parallel
(d) Identifying when and where a regression occurred
A
Only (a), (c), and (d)
B
Only (a), (b), and (c)
C
Only (a), (b), and (d)
D
Only (b), (c), and (d)
       Software-Engineering       Software-configuration-management       UGC NET CS 2017 Nov- paper-3
Question 245 Explanation: 
Software Configuration Management (SCM) is a use-case supported by standard version control systems:
1. Develop the next version of a piece of software while fixing problems with the current one.
2. Share code with other team members in a controlled way, allowing you to develop code in parallel with others and join with the current state of the codeline.
3. Identify what versions of code went into a particular component.
4. Analyze where change happened in the history of a component's development.
There are 245 questions to complete.