Question 1
Which one of the following facilitates transfer of bulk data from hard disk to main memory with the highest throughput?
DMA based I/O transfer
Interrupt driven I/O transfer
Polling based I/O transfer
Programmed I/O transfer
       Computer-Organization       I/O-Devices       GATE 2022       Video-Explanation
Question 1 Explanation: 
Explanation: Both the methods of programmed I/O and Interrupt-driven I/O require the active intervention of the processor to transfer data between memory and the I/O module, and any data transfer must transverse a path through the processor.
DMA or direct memory access allows the peripherals to directly communicate with each other using the memory buses, removing the intervention of the CPU. Hence it is the fast mode of IO transfer compared to all other methods. In polling, the processor wastes countless processor cycles by repeatedly checking each IO device if it needs attention.
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