## Nielit Scientist-D 2016 march

Question 1 |

In computing nobel prize is generally known as

Von Neumann award | |

Turing award | |

Pascal award | |

Napier award |

Question 1 Explanation:

Since 1966, the Turing Award has been given annually by the Association for Computing Machinery for technical or theoretical contributions to the computing community. It is widely considered to be the computing world's highest honour, equivalent to the Nobel Prize.

Question 2 |

International domains names in applications(IDNA) uses which encoding syntax to represent Unicode characters in ASCII format

Puny code | |

HASH code | |

DHTMLed | |

BER code |

Question 2 Explanation:

Initially, domain names were restricted to ASCII characters. This was a significant burden on people using other characters. Suppose, for example, that the domain name system had been
invented by Greeks, and one could only use Greek characters in URLs.Most of the world’s population faced this situation until recently, because their languages use non-ASCII characters. A system was introduced in 2003 for internationalized domain names (IDN).This system is called Internationalizing Domain Names for Applications, or IDNA2003 for short. This mechanism supports IDNs by means of a client software transformation into a format known as Punycode . A revision of IDNA was approved in 2010 (IDNA2008). This revision has a number of incompatibilities with IDNA2003.

Question 3 |

IPv6 is developed by

IETF | |

ANSI | |

ISO | |

IEEE |

Question 3 Explanation:

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol (IP), the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet. IPv6 was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to deal with the long-anticipated problem of IPv4 address exhaustion. IPv6 is intended to replace IPv4. IPv6 became a Draft Standard in December 1998, and became an Internet Standard on 14 July 2017

Question 4 |

Among the following

(i) WLAN

(ii) ZigBee

(iii) WiMax

(iv) Bluetooth device

Which of the above can operate between 2400 and 2500 MHz range of the radio frequency band?

(i) WLAN

(ii) ZigBee

(iii) WiMax

(iv) Bluetooth device

Which of the above can operate between 2400 and 2500 MHz range of the radio frequency band?

(i) and (ii) only | |

(iii) and (iv) only | |

(i) only | |

All the above |

Question 4 Explanation:

Question 5 |

URKUND is

Lexical Analyser | |

Emulator | |

Plagiarism checker | |

Big Data Analytical tool |

Question 5 Explanation:

URKUND is an automatic text-recognition system made for detecting, preventing and handling plagiarism, no matter language. We are passionate about helping schools, universities and corporations to encourage original writing and have done so for almost 20 years

Question 6 |

Which computer program was claimed to beat the Turing test?

Eugene Goostman | |

Deep Blue | |

AI | |

True man |

Question 6 Explanation:

Computer simulating 13-year-old boy becomes first to pass Turing test” Eugene Goostman is a chatbot that some regard as having beaten the Turing test, a test of a computer's ability to communicate indistinguishably from a human. 'Eugene Goostman' fools 33% of interrogators into thinking it is human, in what is seen as a milestone in artificial intelligence

Question 7 |

Who gave the(so-called) three laws of robotics

Alan Turing | |

Isaac Asimov's | |

Von neumann | |

Sabeer Bhatia |

Question 7 Explanation:

Isaac Asimov's "Three Laws of Robotics"

1. A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.

2. A robot must obey orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.

3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.

1. A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.

2. A robot must obey orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.

3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.

Question 8 |

Quantum computers are assessed to be___

Supra-Turing Machine | |

Sub-Turing Machine | |

Equivalent to Turing Machine | |

Equivalent to PDA |

Question 8 Explanation:

Although quantum computers may be faster than classical computers for some problem types, those described above cannot solve any problem that classical computers cannot already
solve. A Turing machine can simulate these quantum computers, so such a quantum computer could never solve an undecidable problem like the halting problem.

The existence of "standard" quantum computers does not disprove the Church–Turing thesis. It has been speculated that theories of quantum gravity, such as M-theory or loop quantum gravity, may allow even faster computers to be built. Currently, defining computation in such theories is an open problem due to the problem of time, i.e., there currently exists no obvious way to describe what it means for an observer to submit input to a computer and later receive output.

The existence of "standard" quantum computers does not disprove the Church–Turing thesis. It has been speculated that theories of quantum gravity, such as M-theory or loop quantum gravity, may allow even faster computers to be built. Currently, defining computation in such theories is an open problem due to the problem of time, i.e., there currently exists no obvious way to describe what it means for an observer to submit input to a computer and later receive output.

Question 9 |

Constantinos Daskalakis proved that computing the Nash equilibrium for a three-person game is computationally___

Tractable | |

Intractable | |

In P | |

Decidable |

Question 9 Explanation:

The definition of Nash equilibrium is then made up of two components:

1. Players are rational: Each player’s strategy maximizes his payoff, given his beliefs about the strategies used by the other players.

2. Beliefs are accurate: Each player’s beliefs about the strategies used by the other players are true.

Condition (1) is innocent enough; it’s condition (2) that is tougher to swallow.

The problems that cannot be solved in polynomial time are termed as intractable problems.

1. Players are rational: Each player’s strategy maximizes his payoff, given his beliefs about the strategies used by the other players.

2. Beliefs are accurate: Each player’s beliefs about the strategies used by the other players are true.

Condition (1) is innocent enough; it’s condition (2) that is tougher to swallow.

The problems that cannot be solved in polynomial time are termed as intractable problems.

Question 10 |

The concept of semantic web was proposed/ given by___

Ullman | |

Ravi Sethi | |

Tim Berners Lee | |

Donald Knuth |

Question 10 Explanation:

The term was coined by Tim Berners-Lee for a web of data (or data web) that can be processed by machines that is, one in which much of the meaning is machine-readable. While its critics have questioned its feasibility, proponents argue that applications in industry, biology and human sciences research have already proven the validity of the original concept.

Question 11 |

Researchers at the MIT have shown that by exploiting the polarisation of light-the physical phenomenon behind polarised sunglasses and most 3-D movie systems-they can increase the resolution of conventional 3-D imaging devices by up to___times.

10 | |

100 | |

1000 | |

100000 |

Question 11 Explanation:

MIT researchers have shown that by exploiting the polarization of light, the physical phenomenon behind polarized sunglasses and most 3D movie systems, they can increase the depth resolution of conventional 3-D imaging devices as much as 1,000 times.

“Today, they can miniaturize 3D cameras to fit on cell phones,” says Achuta Kadambi, a PhD student in the MIT Media Lab and one of the system’s developers. “But they make compromises to the 3D sensing, leading to very coarse recovery of geometry. That’s a natural application for polarization, because you can still use a low-quality sensor, and adding a polarizing filter gives you something that’s better than many machine-shop laser scanners.”

“Today, they can miniaturize 3D cameras to fit on cell phones,” says Achuta Kadambi, a PhD student in the MIT Media Lab and one of the system’s developers. “But they make compromises to the 3D sensing, leading to very coarse recovery of geometry. That’s a natural application for polarization, because you can still use a low-quality sensor, and adding a polarizing filter gives you something that’s better than many machine-shop laser scanners.”

Question 12 |

Who showed that primes are in P

Manider aggarwal, N.Kayal and N.Saxena | |

Donald Knuth | |

Aho,Hopcroft and Ullman | |

Tim Berners Lee |

Question 12 Explanation:

The AKS primality test (also known as Agrawal–Kayal–Saxena primality test and cyclotomic AKS test) is a deterministic primality-proving algorithm created and published by Manindra Agrawal, Neeraj Kayal, and Nitin Saxena, computer scientists at the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, on August 6, 2002, in a paper titled "PRIMES is in P". The algorithm was the first to determine whether any given number is prime or composite within polynomial time.
The authors received the 2006 Gödel Prize and the 2006 Fulkerson Prize for this work.

Question 13 |

Self Organizing maps are___

A type of statistical tool for data analysis | |

A type of Artificial Swarm networks | |

A type of particle Swarm algorithm | |

None of the above |

Question 13 Explanation:

A self-organizing map or self-organizing feature map is a type of artificial neural network that is trained using unsupervised learning to produce a low-dimensional, discretized representation of the input space of the training samples, called a map, and is therefore a method to do dimensionality reduction.
Self-organizing maps differ from other artificial neural networks as they apply competitive learning as opposed to error-correction learning (such as backpropagation with gradient descent), and in the sense that they use a neighborhood function to preserve the topological properties of the input space.

Question 14 |

Hopfield networks are a type of__

Gigabit network | |

Terabyte network | |

Artificial Neural network | |

Wireless network |

Question 14 Explanation:

A Hopfield neural network is a type of artificial neural network invented by John Hopfield in 1982. It usually works by first learning a number of binary patterns and then returning the one
that is the most similar to a given input.

__What defines a Hopfield network:__It is composed of only one layer of nodes or units each of which is connected to all the others but not itself. It is therefore a feedback network, which means that its outputs are redirected to its inputs. Every unit also acts as an input and an output of the network. Thus the number of nodes, inputs, outputs of the network are equal. Additionally, each one of the neurons in a has a binary state or activation value, usually represented as 1 or -1, which is its particular output. The state of each node generally converges, meaning that the state of each node becomes fixed after a certain number of updates.Question 15 |

Sigmoidal feedforward artificial neural networks with one hidden layer can / are ___

Approximation any continuous function | |

Approximation any disContinuous function | |

Approximation any continuous function and its derivatives of arbitrary order. | |

Exact modeling technique |

Question 15 Explanation:

Multilayer perceptron class of networks consists of multiple layers of computational units, usually interconnected in a feed-forward way. Each neuron in one layer has directed connections to the neurons of the subsequent layer. In many applications the units of these networks apply a sigmoid function as an activation function.

A feedforward neural network is an artificial neural network wherein connections between the nodes do not form a cycle. As such, it is different from recurrent neural networks. The feedforward neural network was the first and simplest type of artificial neural network devised. In this network, the information moves in only one direction, forward, from the input nodes, through the hidden nodes (if any) and to the output nodes. There are no cycles or loops in the network.

A feedforward neural network is an artificial neural network wherein connections between the nodes do not form a cycle. As such, it is different from recurrent neural networks. The feedforward neural network was the first and simplest type of artificial neural network devised. In this network, the information moves in only one direction, forward, from the input nodes, through the hidden nodes (if any) and to the output nodes. There are no cycles or loops in the network.

Question 16 |

ICA(in computational intelligence) stands for__

Intermediate Computational Algorithms | |

Immediate Computational and Analysis | |

Independent Component Analysis | |

Independent Computational Algorithms |

Question 16 Explanation:

In signal processing, independent component analysis is a computational method for separating a multivariate signal into additive subcomponents. This is done by assuming that the
subcomponents are non-Gaussian signals and that they are statistically independent from each other.

Question 17 |

Find the odd-man out:

ring | |

bangle | |

tyre | |

plate |

Question 18 |

Find the odd-man out:

nails | |

hair | |

grass | |

fingers |

Question 19 |

Find the odd-man out:

KOM | |

UYW | |

FJH | |