Logical-Reasoning

Question 1
A crime has been committed with four people at the scene of the crime. You are responsible for finding out who did it. You have recorded the following statements from the four witnesses, and you know one of them has committed the crime.
(1) Anuj says that Binky did it.
(2) Binky says that Anuj did it.
(3) Chacko says that Binky is telling the truth.
(4) Desmond says that Chacko is not lying.
You know that exactly three of the statements recorded are FALSE. Who committed the crime?
A
Anuj
B
Binky
C
Chacko
D
Desmond
E
Either Anuj or Binky; the information is insufficient to pinpoint the criminal
       Logical-Reasoning       Logical-Reasoning       TIFR PHD CS & SS 2018
Question 2
In the expression ‘Nothing is larger than itself’ the relation ‘is larger than’ is
A
antisymmetric
B
asymmetrical
C
intransitive
D
irreflexive
       Logical-Reasoning       Relational-Argument       2012 June UGC NET Paper 1
Question 3
Assertion (A) : There are more laws on the books today than ever before, and more crimes being committed than ever before.
Reason (R) : Because to reduce crime we must eliminate the laws.
Choose the correct answer from below :
A
(A) is true, (R) is doubtful and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
B
(A) is false, (R) is true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
C
(A) is doubtful, (R) is doubtful and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
D
(A) is doubtful, (R) is true and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
       Logical-Reasoning       Assertion-and-Reason       2012 June UGC NET Paper 1
Question 4
If the proposition “All men are not mortal” is true then which of the following inferences is correct ? Choose from the code given below :
1. “All men are mortal” is true.
2. “Some men are mortal” is false.
3. “No men are mortal” is doubtful.
4. “All men are mortal” is false.
A
1, 2 and 3
B
2, 3 and 4
C
1, 3 and 4
D
1 and 3
       Logical-Reasoning       Square-of-opposition       2012 June UGC NET Paper 1
Question 4 Explanation: 
Question 5
Determine the nature of the following definition :
“Abortion” means the ruthless murdering of innocent beings.
A
Lexical
B
Persuasive
C
Stipulative
D
Theoretical
       Logical-Reasoning       Types-of-Definitions       2012 June UGC NET Paper 1
Question 5 Explanation: 
Question 6
Which one of the following is not an argument ?
A
Devadutt does not eat in the day so he must be eating at night.
B
If Devadutt is growing fat and if he does not eat during the day, he will be eating at night.
C
Devadutt eats in the night so he does not eat during the day.
D
Since Devadutt does not eat in the day, he must be eating in the night.
       Logical-Reasoning       Validity-of-Arguments       2012 June UGC NET Paper 1
Question 6 Explanation: 
Argument: An exchange of diverging (or) opposite views.
→ Option B is not an argument.
Question 7
Venn diagram is a kind of diagram to
A
represent and assess the validity of elementary inferences of syllogistic form.
B
represent but not assess the validity of elementary inferences of syllogistic form.
C
represent and assess the truth of elementary inferences of syllogistic form.
D
assess but not represent the truth of elementary inferences of syllogistic form
       Logical-Reasoning       Venn-Diagram       2012 June UGC NET Paper 1
Question 7 Explanation: 
Venn diagram is a kind of diagram to represent and assess the validity of elementary inferences of syllogistic form.
Question 8
Reasoning by analogy leads to
A
certainty
B
definite conclusion
C
predictive conjecture
D
surety
       Logical-Reasoning       Analogical-Reasoning       2012 June UGC NET Paper 1
Question 8 Explanation: 
Reasoning by analogy leads to predictive conjecture.
Question 9
Which of the following statements are false ? Choose from the code given below :
1. Inductive arguments always proceed from the particular to the general.
2. A cogent argument must be inductively strong.
3. A valid argument may have a false premise and a false conclusion.
4. An argument may legitimately be spoken of as ‘true’ or ‘false’.
A
2, 3 and 4
B
1 and 3
C
2 and 4
D
1 and 2
       Logical-Reasoning       Types-of-Arguments       2012 June UGC NET Paper 1
Question 10
A definition put forward to resolve a dispute by influencing attitudes or stirring emotions is called
A
Lexical
B
Persuasive
C
Stipulative
D
Precisions
       Logical-Reasoning       Types-of-Definitions       2013 June UGC NET Paper 1
Question 10 Explanation: 
Persuasive: Good at persuading someone to do (or) believe something through reasoning (or) the use of temptation.
Question 11
Which of the codes given below contains only the correct statements?
Statements:
(i) Venn diagram is a clear method of notation.
(ii) Venn diagram is the most direct method of testing the validity of categorical syllogisms.
(iii) In Venn diagram method the premises and the conclusion of a categorical syllogism is diagrammed.
(iv) In Venn diagram method the three overlapping circles are drawn for testing a categorical syllogism.
A
(i), (ii) & (iii)
B
(i), (ii) & (iv)
C
(ii), (iii) & (iv)
D
(i), (iii) & (iv)
       Logical-Reasoning       Venn-Diagram       2013 June UGC NET Paper 1
Question 11 Explanation: 
Statements (i), (ii) & (iv) are true.
Question 12
Inductive reasoning presupposes
A
Unity in human nature.
B
Integrity in human nature.
C
Uniformity in human nature.
D
Harmony in human nature.
       Logical-Reasoning       Inductive-Reasoning       2013 June UGC NET Paper 1
Question 12 Explanation: 
Inductive reasoning presupposes the uniformity in human nature.
Question 13
If the statement ‘some men are honest’ is false, which among the following
statements will be true. Choose the correct code given below:
(i) All men are honest
(ii) No men are honest
(iii) Some men are not honest.
(iv) All men are dishonest.
A
(i), (ii) and (iii)
B
(ii), (iii) and (iv)
C
(i), (iii) and (iv)
D
(ii), (i) and (iv)
       Logical-Reasoning       Square-of-opposition       2013 June UGC NET Paper 1
Question 14
Given below is a diagram of three circles A, B and C over-lapping each other? The circle A represents the class of honest people, the circle B represent the class of sincere people and circle C represents the class of politicians. p, q, r, s, U, X, Y represent different regions. Select the code that represents the region indicating the class of honest politicians who are not sincere.
A
X
B
q
C
p
D
s
       Logical-Reasoning       Venn-Diagram       2014 December UGC NET Paper 1
Question 14 Explanation: 
‘S’ is the region of honest politicians who are not sincere.
Question 15
“A man ought no more to value himself for being wiser than a woman if he owes his advantage to a better education, than he ought to boast of his courage for beating a man when his hands were tied.” The above passage is an instance of
A
Deductive argument
B
Hypothetical argument
C
Analogical argument
D
Factual argument
       Logical-Reasoning       Analogical-Reasoning       2014 December UGC NET Paper 1
Question 15 Explanation: 
The given passage is enhance of Analogical argument.
→ Analogical arguments (or argument by analogy) are a form of induction is derived from a comparison of similarities between the two are more cases.
Question 16
By which of the following proposition, the proposition “wise men are hardly afraid of death” is contradicted?
A
Some wise men are afraid of death.
B
All wise men are afraid of death.
C
No wise men is afraid of death.
D
Some wise men are not afraid of death.
       Logical-Reasoning       Square-of-opposition       2014 December UGC NET Paper 1
Question 16 Explanation: 
Option ‘B’ is suitable contradicted to given proposition.
Question 17
When in a group of propositions, one proposition is claimed to follow from the others, that group of propositions is called
A
An argument
B
A valid argument
C
An explanation
D
An invalid argument
       Logical-Reasoning       Validity-of-Arguments       2014 December UGC NET Paper 1
Question 17 Explanation: 
Argument:- Set of reasons given in support of an idea, theory (or) action.
Question 18
Namita and Samita are brilliant and studious. Anita and karabi are obedient and irregular. Babita and Namita are irregular but brilliant. Samita and Kabita are regular and obedient. Who among them is/are brilliant, obedient, regular and studious?
A
Samita alone
B
Namita and Samita
C
Kabita alone
D
Anita alone
       Logical-Reasoning       Venn-Diagram       2014 December UGC NET Paper 1
Question 19
If two propositions having the same subject and predicate terms are such that one is the denial of the other, the relationship between them is called
A
Contradictory
B
Contrary
C
Sub-contrary
D
Sub-alteration
       Logical-Reasoning       Square-of-opposition       2013 December UGC NET Paper 1
Question 20
Ananaya and Krishna can speak and follow English. Bulbul can write and speak Hindi as Archana does. Archana talks with Ananya also in Bengali. Krishna can not follow Bengali. Bulbul talks with Ananya in Hindi. Who can speak and follow English, Hindi and Bengali?
A
Archana
B
Bulbul
C
Ananya
D
Krishna
       Logical-Reasoning       Venn-Diagram       2013 December UGC NET Paper 1
Question 21
A stipulative definition may be said to be
A
Always true
B
Always false
C
Sometimes true, sometimes false
D
Neither true nor false
       Logical-Reasoning       Types-of-Definitions       2013 December UGC NET Paper 1
Question 21 Explanation: 
Stipulative statement either said to be neither true (or) false.
Question 22
When the conclusion of an argument follows from its premise/premises conclusively, the argument is called
A
Circular argument
B
Inductive argument
C
Deductive argument
D
Analogical argument
       Logical-Reasoning       Deductive-Reasoning       2013 December UGC NET Paper 1
Question 22 Explanation: 
Deductive arguments follows the premise/ premises conclusively and these premises are true then the conclusion must also be true.
Question 23
Saturn and Mars are planets like the earth. They borrow light from the Sun and moves around the sun as the Earth does. So those planets are inhabited by various orders of creatures as the earth is
What type of argument is contained in the above passage?
A
Deductive
B
Astrological
C
Analogical
D
Mathematical
       Logical-Reasoning       Analogical-Reasoning       2013 December UGC NET Paper 1
Question 24
Given below are two premises. Four conclusions are drawn from those two premises in four codes. Select the code that states the conclusion validly drawn.
Premises:
(i) All saints are religious. (major)
(ii) Some honest persons are saints. (minor)
A
All saints are honest
B
Some saints are honest.
C
Some honest persons are religious.
D
All religious persons are honest
       Logical-Reasoning       Validity-of-Arguments       2013 December UGC NET Paper 1
Question 25
Yadav, Arjun, Rajesh and Kamal play cricket. Rajesh and Kamal play tennis but do not play football. Yadav does not play Badminton but play golf. Arjun does not play tennis. Kamal sometimes plays Badminton. Who does play only cricket ?
A
Yadav
B
Arjun
C
Rajesh
D
Kamal
       Logical-Reasoning       Venn-Diagram       2013 September UGC NET Paper 1
Question 26
A deductive argument can not be valid :
A
If its premise / premises is/are true and its conclusion is true.
B
If its premise / premises is /are true and its conclusion is false.
C
If its premise / premises is/are false and its conclusion is false.
D
If its premise / premises is / are false and its conclusion is true.
       Logical-Reasoning       Deductive-Reasoning       2013 September UGC NET Paper 1
Question 26 Explanation: 
Deductive argument is not valid when premises true and the conclusion is false.
Ans:- Option B
Question 27
An analogical argument is strengthened by
A
making the claim bolder while its premises remain unchanged.
B
reducing the claim made on the basis of the premises affirmed.
C
remaining the claim unchanged while the evidence in its support is found to exhibit greater frailty.
D
None of the above.
       Logical-Reasoning       Analogical-Reasoning       2013 September UGC NET Paper 1
Question 27 Explanation: 
Option ‘B’ is appropriate to the analogical arguments.
Question 28
If two propositions cannot both be false but may both be true, what is the relation between the two propositions ?
A
Contrary
B
Sub-contrary
C
Sub-alternation
D
Contradictory
       Logical-Reasoning       Square-of-opposition       2013 September UGC NET Paper 1
Question 28 Explanation: 
Subcontrary:- Two prepositions can be true, but cannot be false.
Question 29
What is equivalent of the statement ‘All atheists are pessimists’ ?
A
All non-pessimists are nonatheists.
B
All non-atheists are nonpessimists.
C
All pessimists are atheists.
D
None of the above.
       Logical-Reasoning       Square-of-opposition       2013 September UGC NET Paper 1
Question 29 Explanation: 
Question 30
"If a large diamond is cut up into little bits it will lose its value just as an army is divided up into small units of soldiers. It loses its strength." The argument put above may be called as
A
Analogical
B
Deductive
C
Statistical
D
Casual
       Logical-Reasoning       Analogical-Reasoning       2014 June UGC NET Paper 1
Question 30 Explanation: 
The given argument can be called as analogical.
→ Analogical arguments are a form of induction where a conclusion is derived from a comparison of similarities between two (or) more cases.
Question 31
Given below are some characteristics of logical argument. Select the code which expresses a characteristic which is not of inductive in character.
A
The conclusion is claimed to follow from its premises.
B
The conclusion is based on causal relation.
C
The conclusion conclusively follows from its premises.
D
The conclusion is based on observation and experiment
       Logical-Reasoning       Inductive-Reasoning       2014 June UGC NET Paper 1
Question 31 Explanation: 
Inductive reasoning is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion and this is in contrast to deductive reasoning.
Question 32
If two propositions having the same subject and predicate terms can both be true but cannot both be false, the relation between those two propositions is called
A
contradictory
B
contrary
C
subcontrary
D
subaltern
       Logical-Reasoning       Square-of-opposition       2014 June UGC NET Paper 1
Question 32 Explanation: 
Subcontrary:- Denoting the preposition can be true but cannot be false.
Question 33
Given below are two premises and four conclusions drawn from those premises. Select the code that expresses conclusion drawn validly from the premises (separately or jointly).
Premises:
(a) All dogs are mammals.
(b) No cats are dogs.
Conclusions:
(i) No cats are mammals
(ii) Some cats are mammals.
(iii) No Dogs are cats
(iv) No dogs are non-mammals.
A
(i) only
B
(i) and (ii)
C
(iii) and (iv)
D
(ii) and (iii)
       Logical-Reasoning       Validity-of-Arguments       2014 June UGC NET Paper 1
Question 33 Explanation: 
Question 34
Given below is a diagram of three circles A, B & C inter-related with each of Indians. The circle B represents the class of scientists and circle C represents the class of politicians. p,q,r,s... represent different regions. Select the code containing the region that indicates the class of Indian scientists who are not politicians.
A
q and s only
B
s only
C
s and r only
D
p, q and s only
       Logical-Reasoning       Venn-Diagram       2014 June UGC NET Paper 1
Question 35
If two propositions are connected in such a way that they cannot both be false although they may both be true, then their relationship is called
A
Contrary
B
Subcontrary
C
Contradictory
D
Subalternation
       Logical-Reasoning       Square-of-opposition       2016 August NTA UGC NET Paper 1
Question 35 Explanation: 
Sub contrary: Denoting prepositions which can both be true but cannot be false.
Question 36
Which one among the following is not a characteristic of a deductive type of argument?
A
The conclusion follows from the premise/premises necessarily.
B
The argument admits degree of complexity.
C
The argument provides us knowledge about matters of fact.
D
The argument must be either valid or invalid.
       Logical-Reasoning       Deductive-Reasoning       2016 August NTA UGC NET Paper 1
Question 36 Explanation: 
A deductive argument is an argument that is intended by the arguer to be deductively valid that is to provide a guarantee of the truth of the conclusion provided that the argument's premises are true.
Question 37
Select the code which states the condition of an invalid deductive argument:
A
All the premises are true but the conclusion is false.
B
Some of the premises are true but the conclusion is false.
C
All the premises are false and the conclusion is also false.
D
All the premises are true and the conclusion is also true.
       Logical-Reasoning       Deductive-Reasoning       2016 August NTA UGC NET Paper 1
Question 38
Given below are two premises, with four conclusions drawn from them (taking singly or together); which conclusions are validly drawn? Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
Premises:
(i) All bats are mammals.
(ii) Birds are not bats.
Conclusions:
(a) Birds are not mammals.
(b) Bats are not birds.
(c) All mammals are bats.
(d) Some mammals are bats.
A
(a), (b) and (d)
B
(b) and (d)
C
(a) and (c)
D
(b), (c) and (d)
       Logical-Reasoning       Validity-of-Arguments       2016 August NTA UGC NET Paper 1
Question 38 Explanation: 
Question 39
When a definition implies a proposal to use the definiendum to mean what is meant by the definiens it is called
A
Lexical definition
B
Stipulative definition
C
Precising definition
D
Persuasive definition
       Logical-Reasoning       Types-of-Definitions       2016 August NTA UGC NET Paper 1
Question 40
Select the code which is not correct:
An analogical argument is strengthened by
A
Increasing the number of entities.
B
Increasing the number of similar respects.
C
Reducing the claim made earlier stronger.
D
Making the conclusion stronger when premises remain unchanged.
       Logical-Reasoning       Analogical-Reasoning       2016 August NTA UGC NET Paper 1
Question 41
Among the following statements two are contradictory to each other. Select the correct code that represents them:
Statements:
(a) All poets are philosophers.
(b) Some poets are philosophers.
(c) Some poets are not philosophers.
(d) No philosopher is a poet.
A
(b) and (c)
B
(a) and (b)
C
(a) and (d)
D
(a) and (c)
       Logical-Reasoning       Square-of-opposition       2015 June NTA UGC Paper 1
Question 41 Explanation: 
Statements (a) and (c) are contradictories which those statements gives the proper meaning for the contradictory.
Question 42
When the purpose of a definition is to explain the use or to eliminate ambiguity the definition is called:
A
Persuasive
B
Stipulative
C
Theoretical
D
Lexical
       Logical-Reasoning       Types-of-Definitions       2015 June NTA UGC Paper 1
Question 42 Explanation: 
The word ‘Lexical’ is the most suitable for the given statement.
Question 43
A deductive argument is invalid if:
A
Its premises and conclusions are all true
B
Its premises and conclusions are all false
C
Its premises are true but its conclusion is false
D
Its premises are false but its conclusion is true
       Logical-Reasoning       Deductive-Reasoning       2015 June NTA UGC Paper 1
Question 43 Explanation: 
In deductive arguments if premises are true then the conclusion is also true.
Question 44
Which of the codes given below contains only the correct statements? Select the code:
Statements:
(a) Venn diagram represents the arguments graphically.
(b) Venn diagram can enhance our understanding.
(c) Venn diagram may be called valid or invalid.
(d) Venn diagram is clear method of notation.
A
(a), (c) and (d)
B
(a), (b) and (c)
C
(a), (b) and (d)
D
(b), (c) and (d)
       Logical-Reasoning       Venn-Diagram       2015 June NTA UGC Paper 1
Question 44 Explanation: 
Inductive reasoning gives knowledge of facts about the world.
Question 45
Inductive reasoning is grounded on:
A
Harmony of nature
B
Integrity of nature
C
Unity of nature
D
Uniformity of nature
       Logical-Reasoning       Inductive-Reasoning       2015 June NTA UGC Paper 1
Question 45 Explanation: 
Inductive reasoning can be grounded on uniformity of nature which is most appropriate.
Question 46
If we want to seek new knowledge of facts about the world, we must rely on reason of the type:
A
Physiological
B
Inductive
C
Deductive
D
Demonstrative
       Logical-Reasoning       Inductive-Reasoning       2015 June NTA UGC Paper 1
Question 46 Explanation: 
Venn diagram is always valid. So, Statement III is wrong.
Question 47
Among the following propositions two are related in such a way that one is the denial of the other. Which are those propositions? Select the correct code:
Propositions:
(a) All women are equal to men
(b) Some women are equal to men
(c) Some women are not equal to men
(d) No women are equal to men
A
(a) and (b)
B
(a) and (d)
C
(c) and (d)
D
(a) and (c)
       Logical-Reasoning       Square-of-opposition       2016 July NTA UGC NET Paper 1
Question 48
Select the code, which is not correct in the context of deductive argument with two premises:
A
An argument with one true premise, one false premise and a false conclusion may be valid.
B
An argument with two true premises and a false conclusion may be valid.
C
An argument with one true premise, one false premise and a false conclusion may be valid.
D
An argument with two false premises and a false conclusion may be valid.
       Logical-Reasoning       Deductive-Reasoning       2016 July NTA UGC NET Paper 1
Question 49
Given below two premise and four conclusions are drawn from them (taking singly or together). Select the code that states the conclusion validly drawn.
Premises: (i) All religious persons are emotional.
(ii) Ram is a religious person.
Conclusion: (a) Ram is emotional.
(b) All emotional persons are religious.
(c) Ram is not a non-religious person.
(d) Some religious persons are not emotional.
A
(a), (b), (c) and (d)
B
(a) only
C
(a) and (c) only
D
(b) and (c) only
       Logical-Reasoning       Validity-of-Arguments       2016 July NTA UGC NET Paper 1
Question 49 Explanation: 
Question 50
If the proposition ‘All thieves are poor’ is false, which of the following propositions can be claimed certainly to be true?
A
Some thieves are poor.
B
Some thieves are not poor.
C
No thief is poor
D
No poor person is a thief.
       Logical-Reasoning       Square-of-opposition       2016 July NTA UGC NET Paper 1
Question 50 Explanation: 
From the statement the suitable proposition is option ‘B’.
→ Some thieves are not poor which is correct.
There are 50 questions to complete.

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