## Logical-Reasoning

 Question 1

According to classical Indian school of logic, what is the correct sequence of steps involved in Anumana (influence)?

 A Upanaya, Pratijna, Hetu, Udaharaps, Nigmana B Pratijna, Hetu, Upanaya, Udaharana, Nigmana C Pratijna, Upanaya, Hetu, Udaharana, Nigmana D Pratijna, Hetu, Udaharana, Upanaya, Nigmana
 Question 2

Which of the following is converse of ‘Some S is P’?

 A Some S is not P B Some P is not S C Some P is S D No P is S
Question 2 Explanation:
 Question 3

Which one of the following fallacious hetu (middle term) is not uniformly concomitant with the major term?

 A Asatratipaksa B Auyatireki C Anyonya Asiddha D Suyabicara
 Question 4

Consider the following argument:

Statements:
Some chairs are curtains.
All curtains are bedsheets.
Conclusion: Some chairs are bedsheets.

What is the Mood of the above proposition?

 A IAI B IAA C IIA D AII
 Question 5

Which one of the following hetwabhasa (fallacy) is involved in the argument. “Sound is element because it is caused”?

 A Virudha or contradictory middle B Satpratipakaa or inferentially contradicted middle C Sadhyasama or the unproved middle D Bedhita or non-inferentially contradicted middle
 Question 6
If some pens are pencils but no pencil is sharpener then
A) All pencils are pens
B) Some sharpeners are pencils
C) Some pens are not sharpener
D) Some pencils are not pens
Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
 A (A) and (C) only B (B) and (C) only C (A) and (D) only D (B) and (D) only
Question 6 Explanation:

→ All pencils are pens and Some pens are not sharpener
Note: Statement-B is definitely FALSE. So, Option-B and D are definitely wrong.
No pencil is sharpener
Then
some sharpeners are pencils ==> it is false
So we can eliminate Options consists of statement-B
Now answer is either A & C or A &D But most suitable is A &C
 Question 7
Match List I with List II:
List I List II
(Philosophical doctrines) (Philosophical schools)
A) Syādavāda (I) Nyāya
B) Anupalabdhi (II) Buddhism
C) Apoha (III) Vedānta
D) Abhāva (IV) Jainism
Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
 A (A)-(II), (B)-(IV), (C)-(III), (D)-(I) B (A)-(IV), (B)-(III), (C)-(II), (D)-(I) C (A)-(I), (B)-(II), (C)-(IV), (D)-(III) D (A)-(III), (B)-(I), (C)-(II), (D)-(IV)
 Question 8
Which one of the following pramānas has been accepted in Buddhism?
 A Arthāpatti B Anupalabdhi C S’abda D Pratyaksha
 Question 9
Given below are two Statements:
The water of the pond is muddy. It must have rained last night.
What kind of Anumāna (inference) has been used in the above statements. Choose the correct option from the following:
A) S’esavat anumāna
B) Comparison
C) Pūrvovat anumāna
D) Both (A) and (B)
Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
 A (A) only B (B) only C (C) only D (D) only
Question 9 Explanation:
Yes, It may be challenging.
You can refer the below explanation
According to Causal relation anumāna is of three kinds:
(a) Purvavat: In Purvavat anumāna, we infer the unperceived effect from a perceived cause. For example, when from the presence of dark heavy clouds in the sky, we infer that there will be rainfall.
(b) Sesavat: Here, we infer the unperceived cause from a perceived effect. For example, when we see a river in flood and infer that there was heavy rain, we have a case of Sesavat inference.
Note: As per the official key they gave option-C is the correct answer but according to concept, Option-A is the correct answer.
 Question 10
Which one of the following schools has not accepted anumāna (inference) as a valid source of knowledge?
 A Advaita Vedānta B Visisādvaita C Chārvāka D Sānkhya
 Question 11
Match List I with List II: List I consists of the Vedangas and List II contains subjects dealt in them.
List I                             List II
A) Nirukta                   (I) Phonetics
B) Chhandas              (II) Ritual
C) Shiksha                  (III) Metrics
D) Kalpa                     (IV) Etymology
Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
 A (A)-(II), (B)-(IV), (C)-(III), (D)-(I) B (A)-(IV), (B)-(III), (C)-(I), (D)-(II) C (A)-(III), (B)-(I), (C)-(II), (D)-(IV) D (A)-(I), (B)-(II), (C)-(IV), (D)-(III)
 Question 12
Given below are two statements: One if labelled as Assertion (A) and the other is labelled as Reason (R):
Assertion (A): Substance is always the subject of all predicates.
Reason (R): Substance is self-existence and self-conceived.
In the light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the option given below:
 A Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A) B Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is NOT the correct explanation of (A) C (A) is true but (R) is false D (A) is false but (R) is true
 Question 13
Identify the fallacy committed in the following argument: "My opponent cheated on his taxes. He hired an illegal migrant as a nanny. His views on tax reforms simply cannot be trusted".
 A Inappropriate authority B Ad hominem C Appeal to ignorance D Begging the question
 Question 14
Which of the following statement is logically equivalent to the statement "All tigers are hunting animals"?
 A Some hunting animals are tigers. B No tigers are non-hunting animals. C No hunting animals are tigers. D Some hunting animals are not tigers.
 Question 15
Which of the following statements are contradictory to each other?
A. All human beings are mortal.
B. No human beings are mortal.
C. Some human beings are mortal.
D. Some human beings are not mortal.
Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
 A A and B only B B and C only C C and D only D B and D only
 Question 16
According to Classical Indian school of logic knowledge derived from comparison and which roughly corresponds to analogy is:
 A Arthapati B Anumana C Upamana D Anuplabdhi
 Question 17
"If I were, a heavy smoker, smoking would shorten my life. That's why I do not smoke. And I except to live a long and healthy life". Which fallacy is committed in the above argument?
 A Existential fallacy B Undistributed middle C Affirming the consequent D Denying the antecedent
 Question 18
What number would replace question mark (?) in the series given below?
1, 4, 11, 26, 57, 120, 247, ?
 A 424 B 367 C 255 D 502
 Question 19
Which of the logical informal fallacy is committed in the following argument “Mr X is used abusive language toward the child who threw a stone at his car. Since child abuse is a crime. he should be reported to the authorities"?
 A Appeal to Emotion B Hasty generalization C Equivocation D Appeal to force
 Question 20
Given below are two statements :
Statement I : To form the contrapositive of a given proposition, we replace its subject term with the complement of its predicate term. and we replace its predicate term with the complement of its subject term.
Statement II: All contra positions are valid.
In the light of the above statements. choose the correct answer from the options given below
 A Both Statement I and Statement II are true B Both Statement I and Statement II are false C Statement I is true but Statement II is false D Statement I is false but Statement II is true
 Question 21
In Nyaya syllogism all the three terms stand synthesized in which of the following steps of the inferential process ?
 A Example(Udaharana) B Conclusion(Nigamana) C Application(Upanaya) D Reason(hetu)
 Question 22
Given below are two statements:
Statement I: Aristotelian syllogism regards deduction and induction as inseparably related
Statement II: The Nyaya School of classical Indian philosophy regards deduction and induction as two aspects of the same process
In the light of the above statements. choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below
 A Both Statement I and Statement II are true B Both Statement I and Statement II are false C Statement I is true but Statement II is false D Statement I is false but Statement is true
 Question 23
If the statement “All women are honest  is given as true; which of the following propositions can be inferred from it?
A)No women is honest' is false
B)Some Women are honest' is true
C)No women is honest' is undetermined
D)Some women are not honest' is false
Choose the correct answer from the options given below
 A A,B and D only B B and D Only C B,C and D only D C and D only
 Question 24
A Class has 100 students with roll number from 101 to 200. All the even numbered students study Physics, whose roll number are divisible by 5 study Chemistry & students with roll numbers divisible by 7 study Biology. How many students do not study any of the given subject Physics, Chemistry or Biology?
 A 35 B 45 C 51 D 62
Question 24 Explanation:
 Question 25

Choose the alternative to decide whether the data given in the statements is/are sufficient to answer the question based on the following information.
Five persons A, B, C, D and E are sitting in a row. Who is sitting in the middle?
Statements:
(I) E is to the left of B.
(II) B is in-between C and E.
(III) D is in-between E and A.
Choose which of the following will be sufficient to find out who is sitting in the middle?
 A Only (I) and (II) B Only (II) and (III) C Only (I) and (III) D All (I), (II) and (III)
Question 25 Explanation:
Here the question is only asking to find who is in the middle not for the exact pattern, so using only B we will get E in the middle and using D we will get only one pattern.
 Question 26

All Boys are Girls
No Girl is a Man
Conclusions:
(I) No Boy is a Man
(II) Some Boys are Man
(III) All Girls are Boys
(IV) Some Man are Boys
 A Only (III) follows B Only (I) follows C All follows D None follows
Question 26 Explanation:
 Question 27

Directions for question number 30 to 31:
Two statements followed by four conclusions numbered from (I) to (IV) are given. You have to take the two statements to be true even if these seem to be at variance from the commonly known facts. Read all the conclusions and decide which of the given conclusions logically follow from the two given statements disregarding commonly known facts.
Q31: All Sentences are Words
All Words are Alphabets
Conclusions:
(I) All words are sentences
(II) All sentences are alphabets
(III) All alphabets are words
(IV) Some alphabets are words
 A Only (I) and (III) follows B Only (II), (III) and (IV) follows C Only (II) and (IV) follows D All follows
Question 27 Explanation:
 Question 28

Directions for question number 30 to 31:
Two statements followed by four conclusions numbered from (I) to (IV) are given. You have to take the two statements to be true even if these seem to be at variance from the commonly known facts. Read all the conclusions and decide which of the given conclusions logically follow from the two given statements disregarding commonly known facts.
Q30. All Shoes are Socks
Some Socks are Gloves
Conclusions:
(I) Some Shoes are Gloves
(II) Some Socks are Shoes
(III) All Gloves are Shoes
(IV) No Shoes are Gloves
 A Only (I) follows B Only (II) follows C Only (III) follows D Only (IV) follows
Question 28 Explanation:
 Question 29
Five people are standing in a row. Aman is standing next to Karan but not adjacent to Tanuj. Radhika is standing next to Priyanka who is standing on the extreme left and Tanuj is not standing next to Radhika. Who are Standing adjacent to Aman?
 A Radhika and Karan B Karan and Tanuj C Karan and Priyanka D Radhika and Tanuj
Question 29 Explanation:
 Question 30
Ramesh’s father is a paediatrician. Ram’s father is a trader. Krishan’s father is a school teacher. Krishan falls ill. Where should his father take him?
 A to home B to school C to Ramesh’s father D to Ram’s father
Question 30 Explanation:
Ramesh’s father is a paediatrician
Krishan’s father is a school teacher
Krishan falls ill
According to the given input Ramesh's father is a paediatrician. So, they went to Ramesh’s father.
 Question 31

What is the total number of ways to reach A to B in the network given?
 A 12 B 16 C 20 D 22
 Question 32

Directions for question number 11 and 12:
Study the following information carefully and answer the question:
Group of girl’s gossip with each other. All are sitting surrounding a round table. The names of the girls are Shiksha, Radha, Chinu, Snigdha and Rani. It is not necessary that they are sitting in the order of the name as mentioned here. Radha is second to the right of Shiksha. Shiksha doesn’t sit with Chinu. Rani is second to the right of Radha. Radha sits near Snigdha.
Q12. Who sits to the left of Shiksha?
 A Rani B Radha C Chinu D Snigdha
Question 32 Explanation:
 Question 33

Directions - Question number 6 to 10 are based on following information:
There are twelve persons named O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y and Z who live in a multi-storey apartment. The apartment has three floors and each floor has four rooms. These 12 persons who live in a set of 12 Rooms can be represented by a Matrix of 3 rows and 4 columns.
→Q lives immediate left below diagonally of a person who lives immediate left below diagonally of T.
→S lives immediate left above diagonally of a person who lives immediate left above diagonally of Z.
→X lives immediate right above diagonally of a person who lives immediate right below diagonally of O.
→P lives immediate right above diagonally of a person who lives immediate right above diagonally of Y.
→T lives immediate left above diagonally of a person who lives third to the right of V.
→Q lives immediate left of a person who lives two rooms below W in the same column.
→R lives to the immediate right of a person who lives immediate right above diagonally of Q. Z is living to the immediate left of U who receives ₹46000 as salary.
→The person who live on one of the floors (left to right) receive salary in the same order ₹50000, ₹48000, ₹47000 and ₹46000.
→The person who live on one of the floors (right to left) receive salary in the same order ₹45000, ₹38000, ₹35000 and ₹40000.
→The person who live on one of the floors (left to right) receive salary in the same order ₹37000, ₹42000, ₹36000 and ₹43000.
Who among the following lives third to the left of U?
 A O B Q C T D S
 Question 34

Directions for question number 13 to 15:
Relationship between different elements is provided in the statements. The statements are followed by conclusions. Study the conclusions based on the given statement and choose the correct answer.
Q13: T >= U = V <= W < X; V >= Y
Q15: A <= B < C >= D; C <= E <= F
Conclusions:
(I) F >= D
(II) A > E
 A if only conclusion (I) follows B if only conclusion (II) follows C if neither (I) nor (II) conclusion follows D if both (I) and (II) conclusions follow
Question 34 Explanation:

A <= B < C >= D; C <= E <= F
D <= C <= E < F
F >= D
 Question 35

Directions for question number 13 to 15:
Relationship between different elements is provided in the statements. The statements are followed by conclusions. Study the conclusions based on the given statement and choose the correct answer.
Q13: T >= U = V <= W < X; V >= Y
Q14. P <= Q <= R > S; T >= R; S >= U
Conclusions:
(I) T > S
(II) U < R
 A if only conclusion (I) follows B if only conclusion (II) follows C if neither (I) nor (II) conclusion follows D if both (I) and (II) conclusions follow
Question 35 Explanation:
P <= Q <= R > S; T >= R; S >= U
T >= R > S R > S>=U
T>S U
 Question 36

Directions for question number 13 to 15:
Relationship between different elements is provided in the statements. The statements are followed by conclusions. Study the conclusions based on the given statement and choose the correct answer.
Q13: T >= U = V <= W < X; V >= Y
Conclusions:
(I) Y <= T
(II) U >= X
 A if only conclusion (I) follows B if only conclusion (II) follows C if neither (I) nor (II) conclusion follows D if both (I) and (II) conclusions follow
Question 36 Explanation:
T >= U = V <= W < X; V >= Y
T>= U= V>= Y
Y <= T
 Question 37

Directions - Question number 6 to 10 are based on following information:
There are twelve persons named O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y and Z who live in a multi-storey apartment. The apartment has three floors and each floor has four rooms. These 12 persons who live in a set of 12 Rooms can be represented by a Matrix of 3 rows and 4 columns.
→Q lives immediate left below diagonally of a person who lives immediate left below diagonally of T.
→S lives immediate left above diagonally of a person who lives immediate left above diagonally of Z.
→X lives immediate right above diagonally of a person who lives immediate right below diagonally of O.
→P lives immediate right above diagonally of a person who lives immediate right above diagonally of Y.
→T lives immediate left above diagonally of a person who lives third to the right of V.
→Q lives immediate left of a person who lives two rooms below W in the same column.
→R lives to the immediate right of a person who lives immediate right above diagonally of Q. Z is living to the immediate left of U who receives ₹46000 as salary.
→The person who live on one of the floors (left to right) receive salary in the same order ₹50000, ₹48000, ₹47000 and ₹46000.
→The person who live on one of the floors (right to left) receive salary in the same order ₹45000, ₹38000, ₹35000 and ₹40000.
→The person who live on one of the floors (left to right) receive salary in the same order ₹37000, ₹42000, ₹36000 and ₹43000.
What is the sum of the salaries received by the persons living on the top floor of the apartment?
 A ₹ 158000 B ₹ 193000 C ₹ 157000 D ₹ 161000
 Question 38

Directions for question number 11 and 12:
Study the following information carefully and answer the question:
Group of girl’s gossip with each other. All are sitting surrounding a round table. The names of the girls are Shiksha, Radha, Chinu, Snigdha and Rani. It is not necessary that they are sitting in the order of the name as mentioned here. Radha is second to the right of Shiksha. Shiksha doesn’t sit with Chinu. Rani is second to the right of Radha. Radha sits near Snigdha.
Q11. If Radha and Snigdha change their places then who will be second to the left of Rani?
 A Radha B Snigdha C Shiksha D None of the options
Question 38 Explanation:
According to the given passage the seating order is

If Radha and Snigdha change their places then Snigdha will be second to the left of Rani
 Question 39

Directions - Question number 6 to 10 are based on following information:
There are twelve persons named O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y and Z who live in a multi-storey apartment. The apartment has three floors and each floor has four rooms. These 12 persons who live in a set of 12 Rooms can be represented by a Matrix of 3 rows and 4 columns.
→Q lives immediate left below diagonally of a person who lives immediate left below diagonally of T.
→S lives immediate left above diagonally of a person who lives immediate left above diagonally of Z.
→X lives immediate right above diagonally of a person who lives immediate right below diagonally of O.
→P lives immediate right above diagonally of a person who lives immediate right above diagonally of Y.
→T lives immediate left above diagonally of a person who lives third to the right of V.
→Q lives immediate left of a person who lives two rooms below W in the same column.
→R lives to the immediate right of a person who lives immediate right above diagonally of Q. Z is living to the immediate left of U who receives ₹46000 as salary.
→The person who live on one of the floors (left to right) receive salary in the same order ₹50000, ₹48000, ₹47000 and ₹46000.
→The person who live on one of the floors (right to left) receive salary in the same order ₹45000, ₹38000, ₹35000 and ₹40000.
→The person who live on one of the floors (left to right) receive salary in the same order ₹37000, ₹42000, ₹36000 and ₹43000.
What is the salary received by a person who lives second to the right of S?
 A ₹ 35000 B ₹ 45000 C ₹ 37000 D ₹ 38000
 Question 40

Directions - Question number 6 to 10 are based on following information:
There are twelve persons named O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y and Z who live in a multi-storey apartment. The apartment has three floors and each floor has four rooms. These 12 persons who live in a set of 12 Rooms can be represented by a Matrix of 3 rows and 4 columns.
→Q lives immediate left below diagonally of a person who lives immediate left below diagonally of T.
→S lives immediate left above diagonally of a person who lives immediate left above diagonally of Z.
→X lives immediate right above diagonally of a person who lives immediate right below diagonally of O.
→P lives immediate right above diagonally of a person who lives immediate right above diagonally of Y.
→T lives immediate left above diagonally of a person who lives third to the right of V.
→Q lives immediate left of a person who lives two rooms below W in the same column.
→R lives to the immediate right of a person who lives immediate right above diagonally of Q. Z is living to the immediate left of U who receives ₹46000 as salary.
→The person who live on one of the floors (left to right) receive salary in the same order ₹50000, ₹48000, ₹47000 and ₹46000.
→The person who live on one of the floors (right to left) receive salary in the same order ₹45000, ₹38000, ₹35000 and ₹40000.
→The person who live on one of the floors (left to right) receive salary in the same order ₹37000, ₹42000, ₹36000 and ₹43000.
What is the sum of salaries of Y and P?
 A ₹ 90000 B ₹ 99000 C ₹ 93000 D ₹ 89000
 Question 41

Directions - Question number 6 to 10 are based on following information:
There are twelve persons named O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y and Z who live in a multi-storey apartment. The apartment has three floors and each floor has four rooms. These 12 persons who live in a set of 12 Rooms can be represented by a Matrix of 3 rows and 4 columns.
→Q lives immediate left below diagonally of a person who lives immediate left below diagonally of T.
→S lives immediate left above diagonally of a person who lives immediate left above diagonally of Z.
→X lives immediate right above diagonally of a person who lives immediate right below diagonally of O.
→P lives immediate right above diagonally of a person who lives immediate right above diagonally of Y.
→T lives immediate left above diagonally of a person who lives third to the right of V.
→Q lives immediate left of a person who lives two rooms below W in the same column.
→R lives to the immediate right of a person who lives immediate right above diagonally of Q. Z is living to the immediate left of U who receives ₹46000 as salary.
→The person who live on one of the floors (left to right) receive salary in the same order ₹50000, ₹48000, ₹47000 and ₹46000.
→The person who live on one of the floors (right to left) receive salary in the same order ₹45000, ₹38000, ₹35000 and ₹40000.
→The person who live on one of the floors (left to right) receive salary in the same order ₹37000, ₹42000, ₹36000 and ₹43000.
What is the aggregate salary of people living at the right end of the apartment?
 A ₹ 137000 B ₹ 134000 C ₹ 125000 D ₹ 131000
 Question 42

Refer the statement and solve the question according to the conclusions.
Statement:
Some Pigeons are Bird;
Some Birds are Alive
Conclusion:
(I) Some Pigeons are Alive
(II) Some Birds are Pigeons
 A Only (I) follows B Only (II) follows C Both (I) & (II) follows D None follows
Question 42 Explanation:
 Question 43
If two small circles represent the class of the ‘men’ and the class of the ‘plants’ and the big circle represents ‘mortality’, which one of the following figures represent the proposition ‘All men are mortal.’ ?
 A B C D
Question 43 Explanation:
 Question 44
A reasoning where we start with certain particular statements and conclude with a universal statement is called
 A Deductive Reasoning B Inductive Reasoning C Abnormal Reasoning D Transcendental Reasoning
Question 44 Explanation:
Inductive reasoning is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying evidence for a conclusion which is also be universal.
 Question 45
If the statement ‘all students are intelligent’ is true, which of the following statements are false?
(i) No students are intelligent.
(ii) Some students are intelligent.
(iii) Some students are not intelligent.
 A (i) and (ii) B (i) and (iii) C (ii) and (iii) D (i) only
Question 45 Explanation:
 Question 46
In an examination, 35% of the total students failed in Hindi, 45% failed in English and 20% in both. The percentage of those who passed in both subjects is
 A 10 B 20 C 30 D 40
 Question 47
Two statements I and II given below are followed by two conclusions (a) and (b). Supposing the statements are true, which of the following conclusions can logically follow ? Statements:
Some flowers are red.
Some flowers are blue.
Conclusions:
(a) Some flowers are neither red nor blue.
(b) Some flowers are both red and blue.
 A Only (a) follows. B Only (b) follows. C Both (a) and (b) follow. D Neither (a) nor (b) follows.
Question 47 Explanation:
Some flowers may red and some may blue but both are not both red and blue. So option (b) fails.
→ Option (a) also fails we don't guarantee that some flowers neither red nor blue.
 Question 48
When the purpose of the definition is to explain some established use of a term, the definition is called
 A Stipulative B Lexical C Persuasive D Theoretical
 Question 49
Which one is not correct in the context of deductive and inductive reasoning?
 A A deductive argument makes the claim that its conclusion is supported by its premises conclusively. B A valid deductive argument may have all false premises and true conclusion. C An inductive argument claims the probability of its conclusion. D An inductive argument cannot provide us any new information about matters of fact.
Question 49 Explanation:
Inductive reasoning is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion. Option (d) is not correct.
 Question 50
Among the following, two statements are related in such a way that if one becomes undetermined, the other will also be undetermined. Select the code that refers to these two statements.
Statements:
(i) Every fruit is nutritious.
(ii) Fruits are hardly nutritious.
(iii) Fruits are mostly nutritious.
(iv) Some food items are nutritious.
 A (i) and (ii) B (ii) and (iii) C (iii) and (iv) D (i) and (iv)
Question 50 Explanation:
If statement (i) is undetermined the other will also be undetermined.
There are 50 questions to complete.

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