## COCOMO-Model

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Question 1 |

Estimation of software development effort for organic software in basic COCOMO is

E = 2.0(KLOC) ^{1.05} Per Month | |

E = 3.4(KLOC) ^{1.06} Per Month | |

E = 2.4(KLOC) ^{1.05} Per Month | |

E = 2.4(KLOC) ^{1.07} Per Month |

Question 1 Explanation:

The basic COCOMO equations take the form

1. Effort Applied (E) = a

2. Development Time (D) = c

3. People required (P) = Effort Applied / Development Time [count]

where, KLOC is the estimated number of delivered lines (expressed in thousands ) of code for project. The constants ab, bb, cb and db are given in the following table (note: the values listed below are from the original analysis, with a modern reanalysis producing different values)

1. Effort Applied (E) = a

_{b}(KLOC)^{b}_{b}[ man-months ]2. Development Time (D) = c

_{b}(Effort Applied)^{db}[months]3. People required (P) = Effort Applied / Development Time [count]

where, KLOC is the estimated number of delivered lines (expressed in thousands ) of code for project. The constants ab, bb, cb and db are given in the following table (note: the values listed below are from the original analysis, with a modern reanalysis producing different values)

Question 2 |

A company needs to develop digital signal processing software for one of its newest inventions. The software is expected to have 20000 lines of code. The company needs to determine the effort in person-months needed to develop this software using the basic COCOMO model. The multiplicative factor for this model is given as 2.2 for the software development on embedded systems, while the exponentiation factor is given as 1.50. What is the estimated effort in person-months?

196.77 | |

206.56 | |

199.56 | |

210.68 |

Question 2 Explanation:

Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO) formula for effort applied is

Effort Applied (E) = a

= 2.2 x(20)

= 2.2 x 89.44

= 196.77

Effort Applied (E) = a

_{b}(KLOC)^{b}_{b}[ person-months ]= 2.2 x(20)

_{1.50}= 2.2 x 89.44

= 196.77

Question 3 |

**The cyclomatic complexity of each of the modules A and B shown below is 10. what is the cyclomatic complexity of the sequential integration shown on the right hand side?**

19 | |

21 | |

20 | |

10 |

Question 3 Explanation:

Cyclomatic complexity is a software metric used to indicate the complexity of a program.

It is a quantitative measure of the number of linearly independent paths through a program's source code.

Cyclomatic Complexity of module = Number of decision points of program + 1

Number of decision points in module-A = 10 - 1 = 9

Number of decision points in module-B = 10 - 1 = 9

Cyclomatic Complexity of the integration(both A and B) = Number of decision points + 1

= (9 + 9) + 1

= 19

It is a quantitative measure of the number of linearly independent paths through a program's source code.

Cyclomatic Complexity of module = Number of decision points of program + 1

Number of decision points in module-A = 10 - 1 = 9

Number of decision points in module-B = 10 - 1 = 9

Cyclomatic Complexity of the integration(both A and B) = Number of decision points + 1

= (9 + 9) + 1

= 19

Question 4 |

**A company needs to develop digital signal processing software for one of its newest inventions. The software is expected to have 40000 lines of code. The company needs to determine the effort in person-months needed to develop this software using the basic COCOMO model. The multiplicative factor for this model is given as 2.8 for the software development on embedded systems, while the exponentiation factor is given as 1.20. What is the estimated effort in person-months?**

234.25 | |

932.50 | |

287.80 | |

122.40 |

Question 4 Explanation:

The Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO) is an algorithmic software cost estimation model developed by Barry Boehm. The model uses a basic regression formula, with parameters that are derived from historical project data and current project characteristics

In the Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO), following is formula for effort applied

Effort Applied (E) = a

= 2.8 x(40)1.20

= 2.8 x 83.65

= 234.25

In the Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO), following is formula for effort applied

Effort Applied (E) = a

_{b}(KLOC)^{b}[ person-months ]= 2.8 x(40)1.20

= 2.8 x 83.65

= 234.25

Question 5 |

On an average, the programmer months is given by 3.6 * (KLOC)

^{ 1.2} . If so, a project requiring one thousand source instructions will require3.6PM | |

0.36PM | |

0.0036PM | |

7.23PM |

Question 5 Explanation:

Given programmer months is given by 3.6 * (KLOC)

=3.6(1)

^{1.2} and lines of codes are 1000 =1K.=3.6(1)

^{ 1.2} =3.6 Programmer months.Question 6 |

Relation of COCOMO model is

E=a*(KLOC) ^{6} | |

E=a*(KLOC) ^{5} | |

E=a*(KLOC) ^{7} | |

E=a*(KLOC) ^{3} | |

None of These |

Question 6 Explanation:

The basic COCOMO equations take the form

Effort Applied (E) = a

Development Time (D) = c

People required (P) = Effort Applied / Development Time [count]

Effort Applied (E) = a

_{ b} (KLOC)^{ b}_{ b} [ man-months ]Development Time (D) = c

_{b}(Effort Applied)^{d}_{b} [months]People required (P) = Effort Applied / Development Time [count]

Question 7 |

The COCOMO model is used for __________ .

software design | |

software cost estimation | |

software cost approximation | |

software analysis |

Question 7 Explanation:

The COCOMO model is used for software cost estimation.

The basic COCOMO equations take the form

1. Effort Applied (E) = a(KLOC)

2. Development Time (D) = c(Effort Applied)

3. People required (P) = Effort Applied / Development Time [count]

where, KLOC is the estimated number of delivered lines (expressed in thousands ) of code for project. The constants a, b, c and d are given in the following table (note: the values listed below are from the original analysis, with a modern reanalysis producing different values).

The basic COCOMO equations take the form

1. Effort Applied (E) = a(KLOC)

^{b}2. Development Time (D) = c(Effort Applied)

^{ d}3. People required (P) = Effort Applied / Development Time [count]

where, KLOC is the estimated number of delivered lines (expressed in thousands ) of code for project. The constants a, b, c and d are given in the following table (note: the values listed below are from the original analysis, with a modern reanalysis producing different values).

Question 8 |

COCOMO stands for

COmposite COst MOdel | |

COnstructive COst MOdel | |

COnstructive Composite MOdel | |

COmprehensive Construction MOdel |

Question 8 Explanation:

COCOMO stands for COnstructive COst MOdel. It is a procedural software cost estimation model but not software process model. Linear sequential,prototype and spiral models are software process models.

The basic COCOMO equations take the form

1. Effort Applied (E) = a(KLOC)

2. Development Time (D) = c(Effort Applied)

3. People required (P) = Effort Applied / Development Time [count]

The basic COCOMO equations take the form

1. Effort Applied (E) = a(KLOC)

^{b}[ man-months ]2. Development Time (D) = c(Effort Applied)

^{d }[months]3. People required (P) = Effort Applied / Development Time [count]

Question 9 |

The COCOMO model was introduced in the book title “Software Engineering Economics” authored by

Abraham Silberschatz | |

Barry Boehm | |

C.J. Date | |

D.E. Knuth |

Question 9 Explanation:

The COCOMO model was introduced in the book title “Software Engineering Economics” authored by Barry Boehm.

Question 10 |

COCOMO model is used for :

Product quality estimation | |

Product complexity estimation
| |

Product cost estimation | |

All of the above |

Question 10 Explanation:

COCOMO model is used for product cost estimation.

Question 11 |

A simple stand - alone software utility is to be developed in ‘C’ programming by a team of software experts for a computer running Linux and the overall size of this software is estimated to be 20,000 lines of code. Considering (a, b) = (2.4, 1.05) as multiplicative and exponention factor for the basic COCOMO effort estimation equation and (c, d) = (2.5, 0.38) as multiplicative and exponention factor for the basic COCOMO development time estimation equation, approximately how long does the software project take to complete ?

10.52 months | |

11.52 months | |

12.52 months | |

14.52 months |

Question 11 Explanation:

Given data,

-- lines of code(LOC)= 20,000 (or 20K)

-- Multiplicative value ‘a’=2.4

-- Exponential ‘b’=1.05

-- Basic COCOMO formula= a*(LOC in K)

-- Multiplicative value ‘c’=2.5

-- Exponential ‘d’=0.38

-- Development=c*(basic COCOMO result)

Step-1: Basic COCOMO formula= a*(LOC in K)

= 2.4*(20)

= 55.756

Step-2: Development= c*(basic COCOMO result)

= 2.5(55.756)

= 11.52 months

-- lines of code(LOC)= 20,000 (or 20K)

-- Multiplicative value ‘a’=2.4

-- Exponential ‘b’=1.05

-- Basic COCOMO formula= a*(LOC in K)

^{b}-- Multiplicative value ‘c’=2.5

-- Exponential ‘d’=0.38

-- Development=c*(basic COCOMO result)

^{d}Step-1: Basic COCOMO formula= a*(LOC in K)

^{b}= 2.4*(20)

^{1.05}= 55.756

Step-2: Development= c*(basic COCOMO result)

^{d}= 2.5(55.756)

^{0.38}= 11.52 months

Question 12 |

A software company needs to develop a project that is estimated as 1000 function points and is planning to use JAVA as the programming language whose approximate lines of code per function point is accepted as 50. Considering a = 1.4 as multiplicative factor, b = 1.0 as exponential factor for the basic COCOMO effort equation and c = 3.0 as multiplicative factor, d = 0.33 as exponential factor for the basic COCOMO duration equation, approximately how long does the project take to complete ?

11.2 months | |

12.2 months | |

13.2 months | |

10.2 months |

Question 12 Explanation:

Given data,

-- lines of code(LOC)= 50,000 (or 50K)

-- Multiplicative value ‘a’=1.4

-- Exponential ‘b’=1.0

-- Basic COCOMO formula= a*(LOC in K)

-- Multiplicative value ‘c’=3.0

-- Exponential ‘d’=0.33

-- Development=c*(basic COCOMO result)

Step-1: Basic COCOMO formula= a*(LOC in K)

= 1.4*(50)

= 70 Step-2: Development= c*(basic COCOMO result)

= 3(70)

= 12.18 months

-- lines of code(LOC)= 50,000 (or 50K)

-- Multiplicative value ‘a’=1.4

-- Exponential ‘b’=1.0

-- Basic COCOMO formula= a*(LOC in K)

^{b}-- Multiplicative value ‘c’=3.0

-- Exponential ‘d’=0.33

-- Development=c*(basic COCOMO result)

^{d}Step-1: Basic COCOMO formula= a*(LOC in K)

^{b}= 1.4*(50)

^{1.0}= 70 Step-2: Development= c*(basic COCOMO result)

^{d}= 3(70)

^{0.33}= 12.18 months

Question 13 |

The number of function points of a proposed system is calculated as 500. Suppose that the system is planned to be developed in Java and the LOC/FP ratio of Java is 50. Estimate the effort (E) required to complete the project using the effort formula of basic COCOMO given below :
E = a(KLOC)

^{b}Assume that the values of a and b are 2.5 and 1.0 respectively.25 person months | |

75 person months | |

62.5 person months | |

72.5 person months |

Question 13 Explanation:

Given data,

-- Functional points(FP)= 500

-- Lines of code(LOC) / FP = 50

-- Effort(E) = a(KLOC)

-- a = 2.5 and b = 1.0

-- KLOC=?

Step-1: Find out KLOC

KLOC= ((LOC / FP)*FP)/1000

= 25

Where K=1000

Step-2: Find out Effort(E)= 2.5(25)

= 62.5 person months.

-- Functional points(FP)= 500

-- Lines of code(LOC) / FP = 50

-- Effort(E) = a(KLOC)

^{b}-- a = 2.5 and b = 1.0

-- KLOC=?

Step-1: Find out KLOC

KLOC= ((LOC / FP)*FP)/1000

= 25

Where K=1000

Step-2: Find out Effort(E)= 2.5(25)

^{1.0}= 62.5 person months.

There are 13 questions to complete.