## KVS DEC-2013

 Question 1
When the object making the sound is moving towards you, the frequency goes up due to he waves getting pushed more tightly together. The opposite happens when the object moves away from you and the pich goes down. This phenomenon is called
 A Band Width B Doppler effect C Sound refraction D Vibrations
Data-Communication       Doppler-Effect
Question 1 Explanation:
→ The Doppler effect is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the wave source.
→ The Doppler effect is observed whenever the source of waves is moving with respect to an observer.
→ The Doppler effect can be described as the effect produced by a moving source of waves in which there is an apparent upward shift in frequency for observers towards whom the source is approaching and an apparent downward shift in frequency for observers from whom the source is receding.
 Question 2
Even when the screen is completely dark while the film is in motion, commercial motion pictures use
 A 32 frames per second or 101 screen illuminations per second B 72 frames per second or 234 screen illuminations per second C 8 frames per second or 32 screen illuminations per second D 24 frames per second or 72 screen illuminations per second
Computer-Graphics       Motion-Pictures
Question 2 Explanation:
→ Motion picture, also called film or movie, series of still photographs on film, projected in rapid succession onto a screen by means of light.
→ When a motion picture film is projected on a screen at the rate of at least 16 illuminations per second but the commercial motion pictures uses 24 frames per second or 72 screen illuminations per second.
→ Film Technology standard is 24 frames per second, a three bladed shutter and some dreamy motion blur, all projected as shadow and light on the side of a wall.
 Question 3
Internet Control message protocol(ICMP)
 A Allows gateways to send error control messages to other gateways or hosts B Provides communication between the internet protocol software on one machine and the internet protocol software on another C Only reports error conditions to the original source, the source must relate errors to individual application programs and take action to correct the problem. D All of these
Computer-Networks       OSI-TCP-layers
Question 3 Explanation:
→ The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is used by network devices, including routers, to send error messages and operational information indicating, for example, that a requested service is not available or that a host or router could not be reached.
→ ICMP creates and sends messages to the source IP address indicating that a gateway to the Internet that a router, service or host cannot be reached for packet delivery.
 Question 4
____refers to these attributes of a system visible to a programmer or, put another way, those attributes that have a direct impact on the logical execution of a program
 A Computer organization B Computer architecture C Microprocessor D Bus
Computer-Organization       Computer-Architecture
Question 4 Explanation:
→ Computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems.
→ Computer architecture involves instruction set architecture design, microarchitecture design, logic design, and implementation.
→ Organization of computer system is the way of practical implementation which results in realization of architectural specifications of a computer system.
→ A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC),or at most a few integrated circuits.
→ A bus is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers.
 Question 5
How many characters does an escape sequence (\On, \Hn,\n,\f) in C++ consume?
 A 1 B 3 C 2 D None of these
OOPS       Properties
Question 5 Explanation:
→ An escape sequence is a sequence of characters that does not represent itself when used inside a character or string literal, but is translated into another character or a sequence of characters that may be difficult or impossible to represent directly.
→ All escape sequences consist of two or more characters, the first of which is the backslash, \ (called the "Escape character"); the remaining characters determine the interpretation of the escape sequence. For example, \n is an escape sequence that denotes a newline character.
→ If we treat it a character constant means one character
Note: An escape sequence is regarded as a single character and is therefore valid as a character constant.
 Question 6
The closeness of the recorded version to the original sound is called
 A Fidelity B Digitization C Sampling D Nyquist Theorem
Data-Communication       Fidelity
Question 6 Explanation:
→ Digitization is the process of converting information into a digital format . In this format, information is organized into discrete units of data (called bit s) that can be separately addressed (usually in multiple-bit groups called bytes).
→ sampling is the reduction of a continuous-time signal to a discrete-time signal. A common example is the conversion of a sound wave (a continuous signal) to a sequence of samples (a discrete-time signal).
→ "fidelity" denotes how accurately a copy reproduces its source
 Question 7
Which layers of the OSI model are host to host layers?
 A transport,session,Presentation, Application B Network,Transport,Session,Presentation C Datalink, Network, Transport, Session D Physical,Data Link,Network,Transport
Computer-Networks       OSI-TCP-layers
Question 7 Explanation:
Datalink, Network, Transport, Session are host to host layers.
 Question 8
The following diagram depicts a______cell.
 A Storage B Mobile C Memory D Register
Operating-Systems       Memory-Management
Question 8 Explanation:
● Computer memory is the storage space in the computer, where data is to be processed and instructions required for processing are stored.
● In the computer memory , we will perform read and write operations.
 Question 9
The diagram below represents
 A Moore’s law B Newton raphson method C Boyle’s law D Gregor law
Data-Communication       Moore’s-law
Question 9 Explanation:
Moore's law is the observation that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles about every two years.
 Question 10
_____ is the first Intel x86 microprocessor with a dual core, referring to the implementation of two processors on a single chip
 A Core B Core 2 duo C Dual core D Centrino
Computer-Organization       Microprocessor
Question 10 Explanation:
Core:​ This is the first Intel x86 microprocessor with a dual core, referring to the implementation of two processors on a single chip.
Core 2:​ The Core 2 extends the architecture to 64 bits. The Core 2 Quad provides four processors on a single chip. More recent Core offerings have up to 10 processors per chip.
Dual-core​ refers to a CPU that includes two complete execution cores per physical processor. It has combined two processors and their caches and cache controllers onto a single integrated circuit (silicon chip).
 Question 11
_____chips are high speed processor that are known for their small die size and low power requirements. They are widely used in PDAs and other handheld devices, including games and phones as well as a large variety of consumer products. It is probably the most widely used embedded processor architecture and indeed the most widely used processor architecture of any kind in the world.
 A HAND B LEG C ARM D SUN
Computer-Organization       ARM-Processor
Question 11 Explanation:
→ An ARM processor is one of a family of CPU’s based on the RISC (reduced instruction set computer) architecture developed by Advanced RISC Machines(ARM). ARM makes 32-bit and 64-bit RISC multi-core processors.
→ ARM processors are extensively used in consumer electronic devices such as Smartphones,tablets, multimedia players and other mobile devices, such as wearable. Because of their reduced instruction sets, they require fewer transistor, which enables a smaller die size for the integrated circuitry (IC).
 Question 12
Which of the following is not true for overloaded function in C++?
 A Overloaded functions should have different arguments lists B Overloaded functions having the same argument lists should have a different return type. C Functions cannot be overloaded on the basis of one being static and the other non static D None of these
OOPS       Properties
Question 12 Explanation:
Two or more functions having same name but different argument(s) are known as overloaded functions. So option is not true.
 Question 13
A____is a communication pathway connecting two or more devices. Another of its key characteristics is that it is a shared transmission medium. A signal transmitted by any one device is available for reception by all other devices attached to it.
 A Train B Bus C Tram D Aeroplane
Computer-Networks       Topologies
Question 13 Explanation:
A bus is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers.
 Question 14
The following diagram shows a
 A Bus interconnection scheme B Memory interconnection scheme C I/O D Throughput
\"Computer-Networks\"Computer-Networks        Topologies
Question 14 Explanation:
→ Computer components are interconnected by using a set of parallel lines (Conducted Wires). Each of these lines can be used to transfer a sequence of bits from one component of the computer to the other component. This is a set of parallel lines is called BUS.
→ Generally a computer has more than one bus interconnection. The bus used to connect the main components of a computer is called the ​ System Bus​ .
 Question 15
Which constructor will be called by the following lines of code?
(i) Student S1;
(ii) Student S2=S1;
 A First copy constructor, then default constructor B First default constructor, then copy constructor C Default constructor for both lines of code D Copy constructor for both lines of code
OOPS       Constructors
Question 15 Explanation:
→ Student S1:----whenever we create object to the class , automatically default constructor will be called.
→ Student S2=S1:------The copy constructor is a constructor which creates an object by initializing it with an object of the same class, which has been created previously.
 Question 16
_____ memory is intended to give memory speed approaching that of the fastest memories available, and at the same time provide a large memory size at the price of less expensive types of semiconductor memories
 A Register B Counter C Flip flop D cache
Computer-Organization       Cache
Question 16 Explanation:
→ Cache memory, also called CPU memory, is high-speed static random access memory (SRAM) that a computer microprocessor can access more quickly than it can access regular random access memory (RAM).
→ Register memory is the smallest and fastest memory in a computer.
→ Register memory size very small compared to Cache memory.
 Question 17
Consider the following EMP table and answer the question below:

Which of the following select statement should be executed if we need to display the average salary of employees who belongs to grade “E4”?
 A Select avg(salary) from EMP whose grade=”E4”; B Select avg(salary) from EMP having grade=”E4”; C Select avg(salary) from EMP group by grade where grade=”E4”; D Select avg(salary) from EMP group by grade having grade=”E4”;
Database-Management-System       SQL
Question 17 Explanation:
→ Condition specified in WHERE clause is used while fetching data (rows) from table, and data which doesn't pass the condition will not be fetched into result set,
→ HAVING clause is used to filter summarized data or grouped data.
→ In the question, we require average salary of employees whose grade is E4. So we require grouped data.
 Question 18
The major functions or requirements for an I/O module fall into which of the following categories?
 A Control and timing B Processor Communication C Data buffering D All of these
Operating-Systems       I/O-Management
Question 18 Explanation:
● The computer systems Input/output (I/O) architecture is to interface to the outside world.
● Each I/O module interfaces to the system bus and controls one or more peripheral devices.
● The major functions of an I/O module are categorized as follows:
■ Control and
■ Processor
■ Device communication
■ Data buffering
■ Error Detection
 Question 19
Consider an arbitrary number system with the independent digits as 0,1 and X. What is the radix of this number system?
 A 1 B 2 C 3 D 4
Digital-Logic-Design       Number-Systems
Question 19 Explanation:
→ The radix of a number system is the number of unique digits, including, zero, that are used to represent larger numbers. In the decimal system that would be 0 to 9.
→ In the question, the unique digits are 0,1 and X(possible x value is 2) then number system is 3;
 Question 20
The following diagram shows a
 A Exclusive NOR gate B NAND gate C AND gate D OR gate
Digital-Logic-Design       Logic-Gates
Question 20 Explanation:
→ The XNOR gate is a digital logic gate whose function is the logical complement of the exclusive OR gate.
→ The two-input version implements logical equality, behaving according to the truth table to the right, and hence the gate is sometimes called an "equivalence gate"
 Question 21
The diagram below shows a
 A Half adder B Half subtractor C Full adder D Full Subtractor
Digital-Logic-Design       Logic-Gates
Question 21 Explanation:
The above diagram gives the following expressions
Difference (D) = (A’B + AB’) = A ⊕ B
Borrow (B) = A’B
 Question 22
Which of the following statements is true?
 A The JAVA compile produces a code for JVM, which is executed by a JAVA interpreter B The JAVA compile produces code directly for JAVA interpreter C The JAVA compiler directly executes codes in JVM D The JAVA compile helps in directly executing a code on different operating
OOPS       Properties
Question 22 Explanation:
● JVM is a engine that provides runtime environment to drive the Java Code or applications. It converts Java bytecode into machines language.
● First, Java code is compiled into bytecode. This bytecode gets interpreted on different machines
 Question 23
A/an _____, also called a dta selector, is a combinational circuit with more than on input line, one output line and more than one selection line.
 A De multiplexer B Multiplexer or MUX C Operational amplifier D Integrated circuit
Digital-Logic-Design       Combinational-Circuits
Question 23 Explanation:
● A multiplexer (or mux) is a device that combines several analog or digital input signals and forwards them into a single output line.
● A multiplexer of 2​ n​ inputs has n select lines, which are used to select which input line to send to the output.
● A multiplexer is also called a data selector. Multiplexers can also be used to implement Boolean functions of multiple variables.
 Question 24
Determine the function performed by the combinational circuit of the given figure.
 A 4 to 1 multiplexer B 8 to 1 multiplexer C 16 to 1 multiplexer D 32 to 1 multiplexer
Digital-Logic-Design       Combinational-Circuits
Question 24 Explanation:
Four input lines I​ 0​ ,I​ 1​ ,I​ 2​ and I​ 3​ and Two Selection lines S​ 0 and S​ 1
One output line F
 Question 25
A___ multivibrator circuit is one in which both LOW and HIGH output states are stable
 A Monostable B Bistable C Multistable D Tristable
Data-Communication       stable-multivibrator
Question 25 Explanation:
● The Bistable Multivibrator is another type of two state device.
● Bistable Multivibrators have TWO stable states (hence the name: “Bi” meaning two) and maintain a given output state indefinitely unless an external trigger is applied forcing it to change state.
 Question 26
Refer to the monostable multibrator circuit in the figure below.

The trigger terminal(pin 2 of the IC) is driven by a symmetrical pulsed waveform of 10kHz. Determine the duty cycle of the output waveform.
 A 0.56 B 0.55 C 0.57 D 0.58
Data-Communication       stable-multivibrator
Question 26 Explanation:
 Question 27
Which of the following search algorithm requires a sorted array?
 A Linear search B Hash search C Binary search D All of these
Algorithms       Sorting
Question 27 Explanation:
→ Linear search , in which elements are searched element by element.
→ Binary search in which elements should be in sorting order and every time we will search in the half the elements based upon the mid value.
 Question 28
A web page contains many small images. We can speed up the performance of the browser by
 A Having multiple processes executed simultaneously B Having multiple threads C Increasing the speed of the transmission line D Increasing the main memory of the system
Question 28 Explanation:
We will assign one thread for each image so that all images will load faster.
 Question 29
The percentage resolution of an eight bit D/A converter is
 A 0.39% B 0.38% C 0.50% D 0.51%
Data-Communication       A/D-Converter
Question 29 Explanation:
→ An eight-bit D/A converter have 2​ 8​ -1 resolvable levels which is nothing but 255 levels.
→ Percentage resolution is (1/255)×100=0.39%
 Question 30
From the following java determine the attributes of the class students:
Class student
{
String name;
Int marks;
};
Public static void main()
{
Student S1=new student();
Student S2=new student();
}
 A Only name B Both name and marks C Only S1 D Both S1 and S2
OOPS       Properties
Question 30 Explanation:
→ The attributes of student class are name and marks.
→ There are two objects created in the above program and both have same attributes.
 Question 31
If a user is not able to see the image on the web page, the text that is displayed in place of the image, is specified by which of the following attributes in HTML?
 A ALTERNATE B ALTLINK C ALT_TEXT D ALT
Web-Technologies       HTML
Question 31 Explanation:
● “ALT” attribute is used along with tag to specify the text in place of image, if image not able to see.
● The syntax is
< img src=”file.jpg” alt=”Image can’t be loaded” >
 Question 32
An array is
 A Probably the most widely used data structure B A homogeneous structure C A random access structure D All of these
Data-Structures       Arrays
Question 32 Explanation:
● An array data structure, or simply an array, is a data structure consisting of a collection of elements (values or variables), each identified by at least one array index or key.
● An array is stored such that the position of each element can be computed from its index tuple by a mathematical formula.
● Memory is allocated homogeneously and we can access any element by using index value.
 Question 33
____ are used to access data on secondary, sequential access stores, such as disks and tapes.
 A Sequences B Arrays C Records D Registers
Computer-Organization       Secondary-Memory
Question 33 Explanation:
● Registers is not secondary storage devices. So it is not correct
● Array occupies primary memory(RAM). So it also not correct.
● Records used to access data on secondary devices record by record sequentially.
 Question 34
Sorting is
 A A process of rearranging a given set of objects in a specific order B To facilitate the later search for members of the sorted set C Is a relevant and essential activity, particularly in data processing D All of these
Algorithms       Sorting
Question 34 Explanation:
Sorting is any process of arranging items systematically, and has two common, yet distinct meanings:
● ordering: arranging items in a sequence ordered by some criterion;
● categorizing: grouping items with similar properties.
The most common uses of sorted sequences are:
● making lookup or search efficient;
● making merging of sequences efficient.
● enable processing of data in a defined order.
 Question 35
The figure below represent a ____ sort
 A Bubble B Shake C Tree D Insertion
Algorithms       Sorting
Question 35 Explanation:
Bubble sorting is a simple sorting algorithm that repeatedly steps through the list, compares adjacent pairs and swaps them if they are in the wrong order.
 Question 36
The figure below represents a
 A Hilbert curve order 3 B Hilbert curve order 2 C Hilbert curve of order 1 D Hilbert curve of order 4
Engineering-Mathematics       Hilbert-Curve
Question 36 Explanation:
→ The Hilbert Curve is a space filling curve that visits every point in a square grid.
→ The path taken by a Hilbert Curve appears as a sequence - or a certain iteration - of up, down, left, and right.
 Question 37
Insertion linking with respect to HTML means
 A Linking one part of the document on one computer, to another part of the document on some other computer with the same file name B Linking one part of the document on one computer, to another part of the document on some other computer in the same LAN C Linking one part of the document to another part of the same document D Linking one part of the document to another document on the same computer
Web-Technologies       HTML
Question 37 Explanation:
Linking nothing but creating hyperlinks from HTML page or HTML document to another HTML Page or HTML document.
 Question 38
The figure below represents a
 A Binary tree B Recursive tree C Insert sort D Unitary tree
Data-Structures       Binary-Trees
Question 38 Explanation:
A binary tree is a tree data structure in which each node has at most two children, which are referred to as the left child and the right child
 Question 39
The command used to see the fields of the table along with their datatypes in SQL is
 A Select fields from dual where table=”MANAGER”; B Select field_names, datatype from dual where table_name=”MANAGER”; C Desc MANAGER; D Select description from dual where table_name=”MANAGER”
Database-Management-System       SQL
Question 39 Explanation:
●Describes either the columns in a table or the current values, as well as the default values, for the stage properties for a table.
● DESCRIBE can be abbreviated to DESC.
 Question 40
Which of the following statements is not true for views in SQL?
 A Select statement used in the view definition cannot include ORDER BY clause B A view derives its data from the base tables(s) C A view is updatable if it has been defined from a single relation D A view contains a copy of the data
Database-Management-System       SQL
Question 40 Explanation:
●In SQL, a view is a virtual table based on the result-set of an SQL statement.
● A view contains rows and columns, just like a real table. The fields in a view are fields from one or more real tables in the database.
● You can add SQL functions, WHERE, and JOIN statements to a view and present the data as if the data were coming from one single table.
 Question 41
An important quantitative measure of the complexity of a binary tree is its__. It also provides a measure of the average depth of all nodes in the tree
 A Average path length B Median path length C Mode path length D Simple deviation path length
Data-Structures       Binary-Trees
Question 41 Explanation:
The number of decisions or, alternatively, the number of branches traversed, in reaching a node is called the path length or path to the node.
 Question 42
The figure below depicts the hierarchy_____class
 A Heap B Wrapper C Inheritance D Abstract
OOPS       Class
Question 42 Explanation:
All the wrapper classes (Integer, Long, Byte, Double, Float, Short) are subclasses of the abstract class Number.
 Question 43
The following figure is a____ tree after zig-zig rotations
 A Heap B Bubble C Splay D Binary
Data-Structures       Trees
Question 43 Explanation:
A splay tree is a self-adjusting binary search tree with the additional property that recently accessed elements are quick to access again.
 Question 44
He diagram below represents a solution to the
 A Knight's tour B Eight Queens problem C Kings problem D Rooks problem
Algorithms       Back-Tracking
Question 44 Explanation:
● The eight queens puzzle is the problem of placing eight chess queens on an 8×8 chessboard so that no two queens threaten each other; thus, a solution requires that no two queens share the same row, column, or diagonal.
● The eight queens puzzle is an example of the more general n queens problem of placing n non-attacking queens on an n×n chessboard, for which solutions exist for all natural numbers n with the exception of n=2 and n=3
 Question 45
The function of the XML parser is to
 A Convert XML content into HTML content B Convert XML content into DHTML content C Convert XML content into XML DOM content D Convert XML content into binary code
Web-Technologies       XML
Question 45 Explanation:
An XML parser converts an XML document into an XML DOM object - which can then be manipulated with a JavaScript
 Question 46
In order to add a new column to an existing table in SQL, we can use the command
 A MODIFY TABLE B EDIT TABLE C ALTER TABLE D ALTER COLUMNS
Database-Management-System       SQL
Question 46 Explanation:
→ The ALTER TABLE statement is used to add, delete, or modify columns in an existing table.
→ The ALTER TABLE statement is also used to add and drop various constraints on an existing table.
→ To add a column in a table, use the following syntax:
→ ALTER TABLE table_name ADD column_name datatype;
 Question 47
​ To override a method in java, we need to define a method in a subclass with the
 A Same name, same number of arguments having the same data types as a method in the superclass B Different name, same number of arguments having the same data types as a method in the superclass C Same name but different number of arguments as a method in the superclass D Same name, same number of arguments but different data types as a method in the superclass
OOPS       Class
Question 47 Explanation:
●The argument list should be exactly the same as that of the overridden method.
● The return type should be the same or a subtype of the return type declared in the original overridden method in the superclass.
 Question 48
 A < ?xml version=”1.0” > B < !-xml version=”1.0” > C < /xml version=”1.0” > D < \xml version=”1.0” >
Web-Technologies       XML
Question 48 Explanation:
The ​ Following syntax shows XML declaration −
< ?xml
version = "version_number"
encoding = "encoding_declaration"
standalone = "standalone_status"
? >
 Question 49
If a process is runnable but is temporarily stopped to let another process run, in which state is the process said to be?
 A Running B Ready C Interrupted D Blocked
Operating-Systems       Process-Scheduling
Question 49 Explanation:
1. New
A program which is going to be picked up by the OS into the main memory is called a new process.
Whenever a process is created, it directly enters in the ready state, in which, it waits for the CPU to be assigned. The OS picks the new processes from the secondary memory and put all of them in the main memory. The processes which are ready for the execution and reside in the main memory are called ready state processes.
3. Running
One of the processes from the ready state will be chosen by the OS depending upon the scheduling algorithm.
4. Block or wait
From the Running state, a process can make the transition to the block or wait state depending upon the scheduling algorithm or the intrinsic behavior of the process.
 Question 50
If a table is in BCNF and has no multivalued dependencies, then it is said to be in
 A 3NF B 2NF C 4NF D 5NF
Database-Management-System       Normalization
Question 50 Explanation:
BCNF
● A relation R is in BCNF if and only if it is in 3NF and no any prime attribute is transitively dependent on the primary key.
● An attribute C is transitively dependent on attribute A if there exist an attribute B such that A->B and B->C.
4NF
● A table is in the 4NF if it is in BCNF and has no multivalued dependencies.
 Question 51
Representation of data structure in memory is known as
 A Recursive B Abstract data type C Storage Structure D File structure
Question 51 Explanation:
An abstract data type (ADT) is a mathematical model for data types, where a data type is defined by its behavior (semantics) from the point of view of a user of the data, specifically in terms of possible values, possible operations on data of this type, and the behavior of these operations
 Question 52
The largest element of an array index is called its
 A Lower bound B Range C Upper bound D All of these
Data-Structures       Arrays
Question 52 Explanation:
Consider the array with “n” elements . smaller index value is 0(lower bound) and lager index value is “n-1”(upper bound)
 Question 53
What is coalescing?
 A It is a second strategy for allocating kernel memory B The buddy system allocates memory from a fixed size segment consistency of physically contiguous pages C Kernel memory is often allocated from a free memory pool different from the list used to satisfy ordinary user mode processes D An advantage of the buddy system is how quickly adjacent buddies can be combined to form larger segments using this technique
Operating-Systems       Memory-Management
Question 53 Explanation:
● coalescing is the act of merging two adjacent free blocks of memory.
● When an application frees memory, gaps can fall in the memory segment that the application uses.
● Among other techniques, coalescing is used to reduce external fragmentation, but is not totally effective.
● Coalescing can be done as soon as blocks are freed, or it can be deferred until some time later (known as deferred coalescing), or it might not be done at all.
 Question 54
The positioning time or random access time, consists of two parts: The time necessary to move the disk arm to the desired cylinder, called
 A Seek time B Rotational latency C Flash drives D Transfer rate
Computer-Organization       Secondary-Memory
Question 54 Explanation:
Seek Time :​ The amount of time required to move the read/write head from its current position to desired track.
Rotational latency :​ The amount of time to rotate the track when the read/write head comes to desired sector position. In simple disk, rotational latency is the time to rotate 1⁄2 disk to the access.
 Question 55
In an RDBMS relationships between tables are created by using
 A Alternate keys B Foreign keys C Candidate keys D Composite keys
Database-Management-System       Relational-databases
Question 55 Explanation:
● A foreign key is a field (or collection of fields) in one table that uniquely identifies a row of another table or the same table.
● In simpler words, the foreign key is defined in a second table, but it refers to the primary key or a unique key in the first table
 Question 56
Real time operating system always runs on
 A Linux B Unix C Embedded system D Apple’s Mac OS
Operating-Systems       Types-of-Operating-System
Question 56 Explanation:
→ A real-time operating system (RTOS) is any operating system (OS) intended to serve real-time applications that process data as it comes in, typically without buffer delays.
→ Processing time requirements (including any OS delay) are measured in tenths of seconds or shorter increments of time.
→ A real time system is a time bound system which has well defined fixed time constraints
→ A multitasking operating system like Unix is poor at real-time tasks. The scheduler gives the highest priority to jobs with the lowest demand on the computer, so there is no way to ensure that a time-critical job will have access to enough resources.
 Question 57
A program is a/an____ entity
 A Active B Passive C Dormant D Hyperactive
Database-Management-System       ER-Model
Question 57 Explanation:
→ A process is more than a program code. A process is an 'active' entity as oppose to program which consider to be a 'passive' entity.
→ Being a passive, a program is only a part of proces​ s
 Question 58
The diagram given below represents
 A Process creation B Process state C Queueing diagram D Communication model
Operating-Systems       Process-Scheduling
Question 58 Explanation:
The above diagram represents queueing diagram. Various queues are
→ All processes, upon entering into the system, are stored in the Job Queue.
→ Processes in the Ready state are placed in the Ready Queue.
→ Processes waiting for a device to become available are placed in Device Queues. There are unique device queues available for each I/O device.
 Question 59
The following diagram depicts
 A Two-level model B Many to one model C One to one model D Many to many model
Database-Management-System       ER-Model
Question 59 Explanation:
→ The many to many model multiplexes any number of user threads onto an equal or smaller number of kernel threads, combining the best features of the one-to-one and many-to-one models.
 Question 60
This begins at the root and follows a path down to the specified file, giving the directory names on the path. This is known as
 A Absolute path name B Relative path name C Definite path name D Indefinite path name
Operating-Systems       File system-I/O-protection
Question 60 Explanation:
● A path, the general form of the name of a file or directory, specifies a unique location in a file system.
● An absolute or full path points to the same location in a file system, regardless of the current working directory. To do that, it must include the root directory.
● By contrast, a relative path starts from some given working directory, avoiding the need to provide the full absolute path.
 Question 61
Each process is contained in a single section of memory that is contiguous to the section containing the next process is called
 A Contiguous memory​ ​ protection B Contiguous path name C Definite path name D Indefinite path name
Operating-Systems       Memory-Management
Question 61 Explanation:
Contiguous memory allocation is a classical memory allocation model that assigns a process consecutive memory blocks (that is, memory blocks having consecutive addresses).
 Question 62
Both the first fit and best fit strategies for memory allocation suffer from
 A External fragmentation B Internal fragmentation C 50-percent rule D segmentation
Operating-Systems       Memory-Management
Question 62 Explanation:
→ Internal fragmentation is the wasted space within each allocated block because of rounding up from the actual requested allocation to the allocation granularity.
→ External fragmentation is the various free spaced holes that are generated in either your memory or disk space.
→ Both the first-fit and best-fit strategies for memory allocation suffer from external fragmentation. As the processes are loaded and removed from memory, the free memory space is broken into little pieces.
→ External fragmentation exists when there is enough total memory space to satisfy a request, but the available spaces are not contiguous.
 Question 63
The simplest, but most expensive approach to introductory redundancy is duplicate to every disk. This technique is called
 A Swap space B Mirroring C Page slots D None of these
Operating-Systems       Memory-Management
Question 63 Explanation:
● Mirroring copies identical data onto more than one drive.
● Striping partitions each drive's storage space into units ranging from a sector (512 bytes) up to several megabytes.
●The stripes of all the disks are interleaved and addressed in order.
 Question 64
Bridge works in which layer of the OSI model?
 A Application layer B Transport layer C Network layer D Data link layer
Computer-Networks       OSI-TCP-layers
Question 64 Explanation:
● A network bridge is a computer networking device that creates a single aggregate network from multiple communication networks or network segments.
●Bridges are important in networks because the networks are divided into many parts geographically remote from one another.
● Bridge works at Data link layer
 Question 65
What is the meaning of bandwidth in a network?
 A Transmission capacity of a communication channel B Connected components in a network C Class of IP used in Network D Interconnected by communication channels
Computer-Networks       Transmission-and-Propagation-Delay
Question 65 Explanation:
●Bandwidth is also the amount of data that can be transmitted in a fixed amount of time.
●For digital devices, the bandwidth is usually expressed in bits per second(bps) or bytes per second.
● For analog devices, the bandwidth is expressed in cycles per second, or Hertz (Hz).
 Question 66
Which one of the following transmission systems provides the highest data rate to an individual device?
 A Computer bus B Telephone bus C Voice and mode D Lease lines
Computer-Networks       Topologies
Question 66 Explanation:
A bus is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers
 Question 67
The file size of a 640 by 480 pictures of 256 colours in a 8-bit resolution is
 A 300KB B 900KB C 128KB D 1024KB
Computer-Graphics       Pixel-Resolution
Question 67 Explanation:
●Give picture size with 640 by 480 resolution with 256 colors per pixel.
●This implies 640 * 480 = 307,200 pixels. Recall that 256 values requires 8 bits of computer storage.
●Hence (307,200 pixels) * (8 bits per pixel) = 2,457,600 bits of storage.
●A common method for selling computer storage is in 8 bit groupings called bytes.
●Hence the picture would require (2,457,600 bits) / (8 bits per byte) = 307,200 bytes of computer storage.
 Question 68
The diagram below depicts:
 A Sound in waveform B Wind frequency C Line of sight D Compressions on a map
Data-Communication       Waveform
Question 68 Explanation:
●The generic term waveform means a graphical representation of the shape and form of a signal moving in a gaseous, liquid, or solid medium.
●For sound, the term describes a depiction of the pattern of sound pressure variation (or amplitude) in the time domain
● The temporal frequencies of sound waves are generally expressed in terms of cycles (or kilocycles) per second. The simplest waveform is the sine wave, since it has only one frequency associated with it. The sound waves associated with, say, music, are constantly varying.
 Question 69
The process of producing bitmapped images from a view of 3-D models in a 3-D scene is called
 A Rendering B Looping C Cross dissolving D Imaging
Computer-Graphics       3D
Question 69 Explanation:
Rendering or image synthesis is the automatic process of generating a photorealistic or non-photorealistic image from a 2D or 3D model (or models in what collectively could be called a scene file) by means of computer programs.
 Question 70
The diagram below represents
 A Resolution B Vibration C Reverberation D Frequency
Data-Communication       Reverberation
Question 70 Explanation:
● Reverberation, in psychoacoustics and acoustics, is a persistence of sound after the sound is produced.
● A reverberation, or reverb, is created when a sound or signal is reflected causing a large number of reflections to build up and then decay as the sound is absorbed by the surfaces of objects in the space – which could include furniture, people, and air.
 Question 71
The process of taking a snapshot of the waveform at regular intervals and representing it as a binary number is known as
 A Sampling B Standard Assessment C Sequential Formatting D Sound Structure
Data-Communication       Digital-sampling
Question 71 Explanation:
Digital sampling is the recording of a sound using a string of numbers to represent the sound. 1s and 0s. These numbers are called samples.
 Question 72
____ is a technique where the same objects shown further away are shown proportionately smaller
 A Dimension B Perspective C Compression D Localization
Programming-in-c++       Compression
Question 72 Explanation:
→ Perspective deals with that which is and can be measured in one way or another in an objective manner. It depends solely on the rational aspects of the mind as a tool to gain a total picture of a life situation and understand it.
→ Dimension is basically the same thing with an added aspect that involves the emotional and intuitive aspects of the mind to give a more rounded out sense of one's perspective that cannot be gained through reason alone.
→ Compression is the application of balanced inward ("pushing") forces to different points on a material or structure, that is, forces with no net sum or ​ torque​ directed so as to reduce its size in one or more directions
 Question 73
Which of the following is interactive?
 A A radio broadcast B A talk show on TV C A newspaper D A computer game
Computer-Graphics       I/O-Devices
Question 73 Explanation:
Options A,B and C are not interactive , it will provide only information to the people. Where as Computer game in which computer user should interact with the computer in order to play the game
 Question 74
The X.25 standard specifies a
 A Technique for start-stop data B Technique for dial access C DTE/DCE interface D Data bit rate
Computer-Networks       X.25
Question 74 Explanation:
→ The X.25 specification defines only the interface between a subscriber (DTE) and an X.25 network (DCE). X.75, a protocol very similar to X.25, defines the interface between two X.25 networks to allow connections to traverse two or more networks.
→ X.25 does not specify how the network operates internally – many X.25 network implementations used something very similar to X.25 or X.75 internally
 Question 75
Frames from one LAN can be transmitted to another LAN via a device called
 A Router B Bridge C Repeater D modem
Computer-Networks       Types-of-Area-Networks
Question 75 Explanation:
→ A network bridge is a computer networking device that creates a single aggregate network from multiple communication networks or network segments.
→ Bridges are important in networks because the networks are divided into many parts geographically remote from one another. Something is required to join these networks so that they can become part of the whole network.
→ Take for example a divided LAN, if there is no medium to join these separate LAN parts an enterprise may be limited in its growth potential. The bridge is one of the tools to join these LANS.
 Question 76
With an IP address of 100, you have 80 subnets. What subnet mask should you use to maximize the number of available hosts?
 A 192 B 224 C 248 D 252 E None of the above
Computer-Networks       IPv4-an-Fragmentation
Question 76 Explanation:
The question is incomplete because without class type we can’t determine subnets.
 Question 77
The___houses the switches in token ring
 A Transceiver B Nine pin connector C MAU D NIC
Computer-Networks       Access-Control-Methods
Question 77 Explanation:
A Media Access Unit (MAU), also known as a Multistation Access Unit (MAU or MSAU) is a device to attach multiple network stations in a star topology as a token ring network, internally wired to connect the stations into a logical ring (generally passive i.e. non-switched and unmanaged; however managed token ring MAUs do exist in the form of CAUs, or Controlled Access Units).
 Question 78
The term ___ is used for the larger, more powerful computers other than supercomputers. It supports a large database, has elaborate I/O hardware, and is used in a central data processing facility
 A Minicomputer B Supercomputer C Mainframe D microcomputer
Computer-Organization       Computer-Types
Question 78 Explanation:
→ Mainframe computers or mainframes are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.
→ They are larger and have more processing power than some other classes of computers:
minicomputers, servers, workstations, and personal computers.
 Question 79
This was the first general purpose microprocessor. It was designed to be the CPU of a general purpose micro computer. It was faster, had a richer instruction set and a larger addressing capability. Which microprocessor are we discussing?
 A 4004 B 8008 C 8080 D All of the these
Computer-Organization       Microprocessor
Question 79 Explanation:
4004 and 8008 designed for specific purpose but 8080 microprocessor is first general purpose micro computer.
 Question 80
In OSI network architecture, routing is performed by the
 A Network layer B Data link layer C Transport layer D Session layer
Computer-Networks       Routing
Question 80 Explanation:
→ Network layer that provides data routing paths for network communication.
→ Data is transferred in the form of packets via logical network paths in an ordered format controlled by the network layer
 Question 81
What will be the value of C, in C=x++ + ++x + ++x + x, if x=10?
 A 48 B 45 C 46 D 49
Programming       Operator
Question 81 Explanation:
→ Incrementing the same variable multiple times with in the same expression is abnormal behaviour. Multiple compiler gives different outputs.
→ The initial value of “x” is 10 and it is pre-incremented two times and later addition will be performed from left to right.
→ While performing the addition the variable “x” value is 12 and we adding four “x” variables so answer is 48 (output is based upon the Gcc compiler)
 Question 82
Determine the size of PROM required for implementing the 16 to 1 multiplexer
 A 1Mx1 B 2Mx1 C 8Mx1 D 32mx1
Digital-Logic-Design       Combinational-Circuits
Question 82 Explanation:
●Programmable read-only memory (PROM) is read-only memory ( ​ ROM​ ) that can be modified once by a user.
● PROM is a way of allowing a user to tailor a microcode program using a special machine called a PROM programmer.
● PROM consists of n input and m output lines and which can be represented as 2​ n ​ x m PROM
● In order to implement an n-input , m-output circuit we need 2​ n​ x m size PROM
● From the given question we need to implement 16:1 Mux. So inputs are 16 + (4 selection lines in 16x1 mux) =20
● n=20 and m=1
● PROM size =2​ 20​ =1M
 Question 83
_____ is a sequence of memory read-write operations that are atomic
 A Critical section object B Adaptive mutex C Turnstile D Memory transaction
Operating-Systems       Process-Synchronization
Question 83 Explanation:
An operation (or set of operations) is atomic or uninterruptible if it appears to the rest of the system to occur instantaneously.
 Question 84
In object oriented programming, by wrapping up characteristics and behaviour into one unit, we achieve
 A Data Abstraction B Data Encapsulation C Data Hiding D All of these
OOPS       Properties
Question 84 Explanation:
●Data hiding is a software development technique specifically used in object-oriented programming (OOP) to hide internal object details (data members). Data hiding ensures exclusive data access to class members and protects object integrity by preventing unintended or intended changes.
● Data abstraction refers to providing only essential information to the outside world and hiding their background details, i.e., to represent the needed information in program without presenting the details.
● Encapsulation is a process of combining data members and functions in a single unit called class. This is to prevent the access to the data directly, the access to them is provided through the functions of the class.
 Question 85
The term____ refers to the use of electronics and software within a product, as opposed to a general purpose computer such as a laptop or desktop system
 A Complex system B Simple system C Fuzzy logic D Embedded system
Operating-Systems       Embedded-System
Question 85 Explanation:
● Fuzzy logic is an approach to computing based on "degrees of truth" rather than the usual "true or false" (1 or 0) Boolean logic on which the modern computer is based.
● An embedded system is a controller programmed and controlled by a real-time operating system (RTOS) with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
 Question 86
The____ is popular high bandwidth, processor independent bus that can function as a mezzanine or peripheral bus
 A Peripheral component interconnect(PCI) B Peripheral component disconnect(PCD) C Input output connect D Array connect
Computer-Organization       PCI
Question 86 Explanation:
● The peripheral component interconnect (PCI) is a popular high-bandwidth, processor-independent bus that can function as a mezzanine or peripheral bus.
● Compared with other common bus specifications, PCI delivers better system performance for high-speed I/O subsystems (e.g. graphic display adapters, network interface controllers, disk controllers, and so on).
 Question 87
Sequential, direct, random and associative are access methods and key characteristics of computer____system
 A Stack B Count C Memory D Core
Operating-Systems       File system-I/O-protection
Question 87 Explanation:
● An access method is a program or a hardware mechanism that moves data between the computer​ and an outlying device such as a hard disk (or other form of storage) or a display terminal.
● Memory can be accessed Sequential, direct, random and associative manner.
 Question 88
In a monolithic kernel, operating system runs in
 A User mode B Supervisor mode C User/supervisor mode D None of these
Operating-Systems       Kernel-and-User-mode
Question 88 Explanation:
Monolithic kernel means that the whole operating system runs in kernel mode (i.e. highly privileged by the hardware). That is, no part of the OS runs in user mode (lower privilege). Only applications on top of the OS run in user mode.
 Question 89
The hamming(7,4) code for 0000 using even parity is
 A 0000000 B 1111111 C 2222222 D 12121212
Digital-Logic-Design       Number-Systems
Question 89 Explanation:
● Hamming(7,4) is a linear error-correcting code that encodes four bits of data into seven bits by adding three parity bits.
● The data is ​ 0000 and Hamming(7,4) transmitted is 0000000
 Question 90
One scheme for communication between user thread library and the kernel is known as
 A Lightweight process B Upcall handler C Scheduler activation D Cleanup handler
Operating-Systems       System-Calls
Question 90 Explanation:
Scheduler activations are a threading mechanism that, when implemented in an operating system's process scheduler, provide kernel-level thread functionality with user-level thread flexibility and performance
 Question 91
A classic software based solution to the critical section problem is known as
 A Peterson’s solution B Process synchronization C Coordination D Race Condition
Operating-Systems       Process-Synchronization
Question 91 Explanation:
Peterson's solution is a concurrent programming algorithm for mutual exclusion that allows two or more processes to share a single-use resource without conflict, using only shared memory for communication
 Question 92
Determine the number of programmable inter connections in the following programmable logic device-PAL device with eight input variables, 16 AND gates and four OR gates
 A 384 B 512 C 256 D 128
Digital-Logic-Design       Logic-Gates
Question 92 Explanation:
PAL has only AND plane.
Number of connections
= 2*Inputs * #AND gates
= 2*8*16
= 256
 Question 93
The reduced expression for the following expression using a karnaugh map F(W,X,Y,Z)=Σ(0,4,8,12) is:
 A YZ B Y’Z’ C Y+Z D Y’+Z’
Digital-Logic-Design       K-Map
 Question 94
Which of the following statements is NOT true with respect to database normalization?
 A A 4NF is more immune against logical inconsistencies than a 3NF table. B A 3NF table will have fewer anomalies than a 2NF table C A 3NF table is more vulnerable than a 2NF table D A database is said to be in 3NF if all its tables are in 3NF
Database-Management-System       Normalization
Question 94 Explanation:
→ A relation R is in 4NF if and only if the following conditions are satisfied:
1. It should be in the Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF).
2. The table should not have any Multi-valued Dependency.
 Question 95
The following diagram depicts ____ logic
 A Diode B Transistor C Diode transistor D Resistor
Digital-Logic-Design       Logic-Families
Question 95 Explanation:
The given diagram is combination of both Diode and Transistor
 Question 96
Which of the following statements is NOT true for Rollback statements in SQL?
 A All save points marked after the save points to which you rollbacked, are erased B It does not free any resources held by the transaction C The save point to which you rollback is not erased D The Rollback statement will erase all data modifications made from the start of the transaction to the savepoint
Database-Management-System       SQL
Question 96 Explanation:
It undoes some or all database changes made during the current transaction.
 Question 97
The following figure represents
 A Pure sine wave B Pulse code modulation C Sampling D Rarefaction
Question 97 Explanation:
A sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth periodic oscillation. A sine wave is a continuous wave. It is named after the function sine, of which it is the graph. It occurs often in pure and applied mathematics, as well as physics, engineering, signal processing and many other fields. Its most basic form as a function of time (t) is:

where:
A = amplitude, the peak deviation of the function from zero.
f = ordinary frequency, the number of oscillations (cycles) that occur each second of time.
ω = 2πf, angular frequency, the rate of change of the function argument in units of radians per second
φ = phase, specifies (in radians) where in its cycle the oscillation is at t = 0.
When
φ is non-zero, the entire waveform appears to be shifted in time by the amount
φ /ω seconds. A negative value represents a delay, and a positive value represents an advance.
 Question 98
The reduced expression for the following expression using a karnaugh map F(W,X,Y,Z)=Σ(0,4,8,12) is:
 A YZ B Y’Z’ C Y+Z D Y’+Z’
Digital-Logic-Design       K-Map
Question 98 Explanation:
 Question 99
The following data refers to a hard disk; number of tracks per side=600; number of sides=2; Number of bytes per sector=512; Storage capacity in bytes=21 504 000 Determine the number of sectors per track for this hard disk
 A 35 B 40 C 45 D 50
Computer-Organization       Secondary-Memory
Question 99 Explanation:
Storage capacity in bytes= (number of tracks per side*number of sides*Number of bytes per sector*number of sectors per track)
Here, we have to find number of sectors per track.
Total storage capacity / (Number of bytes per sector*number of sides*number of tracks per side)
=21504000 / (512*2*600)
=35
 Question 100
In a Schmitt trigger inverter circuit, the two trip points are observed to occur ar 1.8 and 2.8V. At what input voltage levels will this device make
(a) HIGH-to-LOW transition and
(b) LOW-to-HIGH transition?
 A 2.8V & 1.8V B 3V & 2V C 4V & 2.2V D 2.6V & 1.5V
Digital-Logic-Design       Schmitt-Trigger-Inverter
Question 100 Explanation:
Two trips are 1.8 and 2.8.
1.8 is low and 2.8 is high.
Schmitt trigger inverter circuit makes circuit low to high and high to low.
(a) is 2.8V
(b) is 1.8V
 Question 101
A transient of 100ms is to be captured on a digital storage oscilloscope on full screen in the horizontal direction. If the transient is to be recorded at a sampling rate of 100kS/s. What should the minimum size of the acquisition memory be?
 A 5K B 10K C 15K D 20K
Question 101 Explanation:
Step-1: Transient captured on a DSO on full screen in the horizontal direction= 100ms
=100*10-3 sec
=1 /10 sec
Step-2: Sampling rate= 100KS/s
= 100*1000 S/sec
= 100000 sec
Step-3: 1/10 sec= 10000 S/sec
= 10*1000
= 10K
There are 101 questions to complete.