## NieLit STA 2016 March 2016

 Question 1
Which of the following has lowest propagation delay?
 A ECL B TTL C PMOS D CMOS
Question 1 Explanation:
● Propagation Delay: It represents the transition time which elapses when the input level changes. The delay which occurs for the output to make its transition is the propagation delay.
● Characteristics of TTL logic:
○ Power dissipation is usually 10 mW per gate.
○ Propagation delays are 10 ns when driving a 15 pF/400 ohm load.
○ Voltage levels range from 0 to Vcc where Vcc is typically 4.75V - 5.25V. Voltage range 0V - 0.8V creates logic level 0. Voltage range 2V - Vcc creates logic level 1.
● Characteristics of Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL)
● The storage time is eliminated as the transistors are used in difference amplifier mode and are never driven into saturation.
● It is the fastest logic family and has the lowest propagation delay.
 Question 2
The number of address lines in a memory chip of size 8192*8 is
 A 8 B 12 C 13 D 16
Question 2 Explanation:
At every point in time, each address line can be one of two states (high or low). Some basic counting shows that N address lines can address 2​ n​ memory locations.
This problem can be solved using an equation
2​ n​ = x; where n is the number of address lines and x is the memory space
2​ n​ = 8192 = 2​ 13 n = 13
Total number of address line required is 13.
 Question 3
Vestigial sideband most commonly used in radio transmission
 A radio transmission B telephony C television transmission D all of the above
Question 3 Explanation:
Limitation of single-sideband modulation being used for voice signals and not available for video/TV signals leads to the usage of vestigial sideband. A vestigial sideband (in radio communication) is a sideband that has been only partly cut off or suppressed. Television broadcasts (in analog video formats) use this method if the video is transmitted in AM, due to the large bandwidth used. It may also be used in digital transmission, such as the ATSC standardized 8VSB.
Vestigial sideband (VSB) is a type of amplitude modulation ( AM ) technique (sometimes called VSB-AM ) that encodes data by varying the amplitude of a single carrier frequency . Portions of one of the redundant sidebands are removed to form a vestigial sideband signal - so-called because a vestige of the sideband remains.
 Question 4
The number of independent loops for a network with n nodes and b branch is
 A n-1 B b-n C b-n+1 D independent of "the number of nodes
Question 4 Explanation:
● A loop is a closed path in a circuit. Loop counts starting at a node passing through a set of nodes and returning to the starting node without passing through any node more than once.
● A loop is said to be independent if it contains at least one branch which is not a part of any other independent loop.
● A network with ‘b’ branches, ‘n’ nodes and ‘L’ independent loops will satisfy the fundamental theorem of network topology.
b=L+n−1
L=b−n+1
 Question 5
Regular sets are closed under
 A Union B Concatenation C Kleene's closure D All of these
Question 5 Explanation:
Regular sets are closed under union, concatenation and Kleene closure
 Question 6
Software that measures, monitors, analyzes and controls real world events is called
 A System Software B Real time software C Scientific Software D Business Software
Question 6 Explanation:
● System software is a type of computer program that is designed to run a computer’s hardware and application programs.
● Real-time software enables the user to execute various task and activities all at the same time, as long as the programs are kept open.Real-time software refers to programs that can perform their assigned duties and functions right when they are assigned to run their given processes, not after the program has been executed, and not on a scheduled date
● Scientific software is defined by three characteristics: (1) it is developed to answer a scientific question; (2) it relies on the close involvement of an expert in its scientific domain; and (3) it provides data to be examined by the person who will answer that question.
● Business software or a business application is any software or set of computer programs used by business users to perform various business functions. These business applications are used to increase productivity, to measure productivity and to perform other business functions accurately.
 Question 7
Dividing a project into segments and smaller units in order to simplify analysis,design and programming efforts is called
 A Modular approach B Top down approach C Bottom up approach D Left right approach
Question 7 Explanation:
● Dividing a project into segments and smaller units in order to simplify analysis,design and programming efforts is called Modular approach
● Modular design or “modularity in design”, is a design approach that subdivides a system into smaller parts called modules or skids that can be independently created and then used in different systems.
There are 7 questions to complete.

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