UGC NET June2019 CS Paper2
Question 1 
How many are there to place 8 indistinguishable balls into four distinguishable bins?
70  
165  
^{8} C _{4}  
^{8} P _{4}T 
Question 1 Explanation:
This is precisely the problem we saw to solve the rcombination with repetition:
= C(8+41,8)
= ^{11} C _{8}
= 11! / (8!(118)!)
= 165
= C(8+41,8)
= ^{11} C _{8}
= 11! / (8!(118)!)
= 165
Question 2 
Match ListI with ListII:
ListI ListII
(Software process Models) (Software System)
(a) Waterfall model (i) ebusiness that starts with only the basic functionality and then moves on to more advanced
features.
(b) Incremental development (ii) An inventory control system for a supermarket to be developed in a highway
(c) Prototyping (iii) A virtual reality system for simulating vehicle navigation in a highway.
(d) RAD (iv) Automate the manual system for student record maintenance in a school
Choose the correct option from those given below:
ListI ListII
(Software process Models) (Software System)
(a) Waterfall model (i) ebusiness that starts with only the basic functionality and then moves on to more advanced
features.
(b) Incremental development (ii) An inventory control system for a supermarket to be developed in a highway
(c) Prototyping (iii) A virtual reality system for simulating vehicle navigation in a highway.
(d) RAD (iv) Automate the manual system for student record maintenance in a school
Choose the correct option from those given below:
(a)(ii),(b)(iv),(c)(i),(d)(iii)  
(a)(i),(b)(iii),(c)(iv),(d)(ii)  
(a)(iii),(b)(ii),(c)(iv),(d)(i)  
(a)(iv),(b)(i),(c)(iii),(d)(ii) 
Question 2 Explanation:
Waterfall model→ Automate the manual system for student record maintenance in a school
Incremental development→ ebusiness that starts with only the basic functionality and then moves on to more advanced features.
Prototyping→ A virtual reality system for simulating vehicle navigation in a highway.
RAD→ An inventory control system for a supermarket to be developed in a highway
Incremental development→ ebusiness that starts with only the basic functionality and then moves on to more advanced features.
Prototyping→ A virtual reality system for simulating vehicle navigation in a highway.
RAD→ An inventory control system for a supermarket to be developed in a highway
Question 3 
A computer has six tapes drives with n processes competing for them. Each process may need two drives. What is the maximum value of n for the system to be deadlock free?
5  
4  
3  
6 
Question 3 Explanation:
Each process needs 2 drives. So for deadlock just give each process one drive. So total 6 process can be given 1 drive each and can cause deadlock. So to break deadlock just reduce 1 process.
So maximum no. of process for the system to be deadlock free is 5.
So maximum no. of process for the system to be deadlock free is 5.
Question 4 
In the context of 3D computer graphics, which of the following statements is/are TRUE?
P: Orthographics transformations keep parallel lines parallel
Q: Orthographic transformations are affine transformations
Select the correct answer from the options given below:
P: Orthographics transformations keep parallel lines parallel
Q: Orthographic transformations are affine transformations
Select the correct answer from the options given below:
Both P and Q  
Neither P and Q  
Only P  
Only Q 
Question 5 
Which of the following statements are DMl statements?
(a) Update [tablename]
Set [ columnname] = VALUE
(b) Delete [tablename]
(c) Select * from [tablename]
(a) Update [tablename]
Set [ columnname] = VALUE
(b) Delete [tablename]
(c) Select * from [tablename]
(a) and (b)  
(a) and (d)  
(a), (b) and (c)  
(b) and (c) 
Question 5 Explanation:
Question 6 
What percentage(%) of the IPv4, IP address space do all class C addresses consume?
12.5%  
25%  
37.5%  
50% 
Question 6 Explanation:
Total possible IP numbers numbers of all classes 0 to 255.
ClassA: 0 to 127. It means 50%
ClassB: 128 to 191. It means 25%
ClassC: 192 to 223. It means 12.5 %
ClassD: 224 to 239. It means 6.25%
ClassE: 240 to 255. It means 6.25%
ClassA: 0 to 127. It means 50%
ClassB: 128 to 191. It means 25%
ClassC: 192 to 223. It means 12.5 %
ClassD: 224 to 239. It means 6.25%
ClassE: 240 to 255. It means 6.25%
Question 7 
Which of the following key constraints is required for functioning of foreign key in the context of relational database?
Unique key  
Primary key  
candidate key  
Check key 
Question 7 Explanation:
Foreign key is a key whose values depends on the primary key of a relation. So for the functioning of a foreign key in the context of relational database we need a primary key.
Question 8 
Software Reuse is
The process of analysing software with the objective of recovering its design and specification  
The process of existing software artifacts and knowledge to build new software  
Concerned with reimplementing legacy system to make them more maintainable  
The process of analysing software to create a representation of a higher level of abstraction and breaking software down into its parts to see how it works 
Question 8 Explanation:
Software Reuse is the process of existing software artifacts and knowledge to build new software.
Question 9 
Which of the following is principal conjunctive normal form for [(pVq) ∧ ~p → ~q]?
pV~q  
pVq  
~p Vq  
~p V ~q 
Question 9 Explanation:
Question 10 
Match ListI with ListII
ListI ListII
(a) p → q (i) ¬(q → ¬p)
(b) p v q (ii) p ∧ ¬q
(c) p ∧ q (iii) ¬p → q
(d) ¬(p → q) (iv) ¬p v q
Choose the correct option from those given below:
ListI ListII
(a) p → q (i) ¬(q → ¬p)
(b) p v q (ii) p ∧ ¬q
(c) p ∧ q (iii) ¬p → q
(d) ¬(p → q) (iv) ¬p v q
Choose the correct option from those given below:
(a)(ii);(b)(iii);(c)(i);(d)(iv)  
(a)(ii);(b)(i);(c)(iii);(d)(iv)  
(a)(iv);(b)(i);(c)(iii);(d)(ii)  
(a)(iv);(b)(iii);(c)(i);(d)(ii) 
Question 10 Explanation:
Question 11 
Consider the following methods:
M _{1} : mean of maximum
M _{2} : Centre of area
M _{3} : Height method
Which of the following is/are defuzzification method(s)?
M _{1} : mean of maximum
M _{2} : Centre of area
M _{3} : Height method
Which of the following is/are defuzzification method(s)?
Only M _{1}  
Only M _{1} and M _{2}  
Only M _{2}and M _{3}  
M _{1} , M _{2} and M _{3} 
Question 11 Explanation:
Defuzzication Methods:
Following defuzzication methods are known to calculate crisp output
→ Maxima Methods
1.Height method
2.First of maxima (FoM)
3.Last of maxima (LoM)
4.Mean of maxima(MoM)
→ Centroid methods:
1. Center of gravity method (CoG)
2. Center of sum method (CoS)
3. Center of area method (CoA)
→ Weighted average method
1.Height method
2.First of maxima (FoM)
3.Last of maxima (LoM)
4.Mean of maxima(MoM)
→ Centroid methods:
1. Center of gravity method (CoG)
2. Center of sum method (CoS)
3. Center of area method (CoA)
→ Weighted average method
Question 12 
Replacing the expression 4*2.14 by 8.56 is known as
Constant folding  
Induction variable  
Strength reduction  
Code reduction 
Question 12 Explanation:
Take variable i=4*2.14
We are simply folding the value into 8.56 because to avoid multiplication costly operation.
We are simply folding the value into 8.56 because to avoid multiplication costly operation.
Question 13 
A fuzzy conjunction operator denoted as t(x,y) and fuzzy disjunction operator denoted as s(x,Y) form dual pair if they satisfy the condition:
t(x,y)= 1s(x,y)  
t(x,y)=s(1x,1y)  
t(x,y)=1s(1x,1y)  
t(x,y)=s(1+x,1+y) 
Question 13 Explanation:
Question 14 
Which data structure is used by the compiler for managing variables and their attributes?
Binary tree  
link list  
Symbol table  
Parse table 
Question 14 Explanation:
Symbol tables are data structures that are used by compilers to hold information about sourceprogram constructs. The information is collected incrementally by the analysis phases of
a compiler and used by the synthesis phases to generate the target code. Entries in the symbol table contains information about an identifier such as its character string (or lexeme) , its type,its position in storage, and any other relevant information.
Question 15 
Which type of addressing mode, less number of memory references are required?
Immediate  
Implied  
register  
indexed  
None of the above 
Question 15 Explanation:
Excluded for evaluation
Question 16 
How many different Boolean functions of degree n are there?
2^{2n}  
(2^{2})^{2}  
2^{2n}1  
2^{n} 
Question 16 Explanation:
There are 2 ^{n} different ntuples of 0s and 1s.
A Boolean function is an assignment of 0 or 1 to each of these 2^{ n} different ntuples.
Therefore, there are 2 ^{2^n} different Boolean functions.
Example: How many different Boolean functions of degree 4 are there?
Solution: 16
A Boolean function is an assignment of 0 or 1 to each of these 2^{ n} different ntuples.
Therefore, there are 2 ^{2^n} different Boolean functions.
Example: How many different Boolean functions of degree 4 are there?
Solution: 16
Question 17 
Consider the equation (146)_{ b} + (313) _{b2} = (246) _{8} . Which of the following is the value of b?
8  
7  
10  
16 
Question 17 Explanation:
(146)_{7}+(317)_{72}=(246)_{8}
Substitute 7 in b,
(146)_{7}+(317)_{72}=(246)_{8}
(146)_{7}+(317)_{5}=(246)_{8}
(146)_{7}=1*7^{2}+4*7^{1}+6*7^{0}
=49+28+6
=83
(317)_{5}=3*5^{2}+1*5^{1}+7*5^{0}
=75+5+7
= 87
(246)_{8}=2*8^{2}+4*8^{1}+6*8^{0}
=128+32+6
= 166
∴ (146)_{7}+(317)_{5}=(246)_{8}
=83+87
=166
166=166
LHS = RHS equal only if b is 7.
Substitute 7 in b,
(146)_{7}+(317)_{72}=(246)_{8}
(146)_{7}+(317)_{5}=(246)_{8}
(146)_{7}=1*7^{2}+4*7^{1}+6*7^{0}
=49+28+6
=83
(317)_{5}=3*5^{2}+1*5^{1}+7*5^{0}
=75+5+7
= 87
(246)_{8}=2*8^{2}+4*8^{1}+6*8^{0}
=128+32+6
= 166
∴ (146)_{7}+(317)_{5}=(246)_{8}
=83+87
=166
166=166
LHS = RHS equal only if b is 7.
Question 18 
Match ListI with ListII
ListI ListII
(a) Disk (i) Thread
(b) CPU (ii) Signal
(c) Memory (iii) File System
(d) Interrupt (iv) Virtual address
Choose the correct option from those given below:
ListI ListII
(a) Disk (i) Thread
(b) CPU (ii) Signal
(c) Memory (iii) File System
(d) Interrupt (iv) Virtual address
Choose the correct option from those given below:
(a)(i); (b)(ii); (c)(iii); (d)(iv)  
(a)(iii); (b)(i); (c)(iv); (d)(ii)  
(a)(ii); (b)(i); (c)(iv); (d)(iii)  
(a)(ii); (b)(iv); (c)(iii);(d)(i) 
Question 18 Explanation:
Disk> File system
CPU → Thread
memory → Virtual address space
Interrupt → Signal
CPU → Thread
memory → Virtual address space
Interrupt → Signal
Question 19 
In the TCP/IP model, encryption and decryption are functions of ____ layer
data link  
network  
Transport  
Application 
Question 19 Explanation:
encryption and decryption are functions of presentation layer in the OSI reference model. Here, they were given TCP/IP model. It combines Session, presentation and Application layers into Application layer.
Question 20 
Suppose that a connected planar graph has six vertices, each of degrees four. Into how many regions is the plane divided by a planar representation of this graph?
6  
8  
12  
10 
Question 20 Explanation:
We apply Euler’s formula where r = e−v + 2.
Since each vertex has degree 4, the sum of the degrees is 24.
By the handshaking theorem, 2e = 24 .
so, e = 12.
r = 12−6 + 2
r = 8
Thus we have 8 regions in this planar graph.
Since each vertex has degree 4, the sum of the degrees is 24.
By the handshaking theorem, 2e = 24 .
so, e = 12.
r = 12−6 + 2
r = 8
Thus we have 8 regions in this planar graph.
Question 21 
Consider a disk system with 100 cylinders. The requests to access the cylinders occur in the following sequence:
4,34,10,7,19,73,2,15,6,20
Assuming that the head is current at cylinder 50, what is the time taken to satisfy all requests if it takes 1ms to move from the cylinder to adjacent one and the shortest seek time first policy is used?
4,34,10,7,19,73,2,15,6,20
Assuming that the head is current at cylinder 50, what is the time taken to satisfy all requests if it takes 1ms to move from the cylinder to adjacent one and the shortest seek time first policy is used?
357 ms  
238 ms  
276 ms  
119 ms 
Question 21 Explanation:
Question 22 
Which of the following problems is/are decidable problem(s) (recursively enumerable) on a Turing machine M?
(a) G is a CFG with L(G)=∅
(b) There exist two TMs M1 and M2 such that L(M) ⊆{L(M1)UL(M2)}= language of all TMs
(c) M is a TM that accepts w using a most 2^{w} cells of tape
(a) G is a CFG with L(G)=∅
(b) There exist two TMs M1 and M2 such that L(M) ⊆{L(M1)UL(M2)}= language of all TMs
(c) M is a TM that accepts w using a most 2^{w} cells of tape
(a) and (b) only  
(a) only  
(a), (b) and (c)  
(c) only 
Question 22 Explanation:
(a): L(G)=∅ is a emptiness problem and emptiness problem for context free languages is decidable.
(b): Recursive: The reason is we can assume L(M2)=∑* and hence any TM (M1) will be definitely subset of L(M2). So we only need to see that M1 is a valid Turing machine and no need to check whether it is subset of L(M2) as it is obviously subset of L(M2)=∑*. Checking validity of Turing machine is always a halting process, hence it is recursive.
(c): L={(M,w)M is a TM that accepts w using at most 2^{w} squares of its tape}.
Recursive: Let m be he number of states in M, and k be the size of the alphabet that M uses, and r=w. If M uses at most 2^{r} squares of its tape, then there are at most Alpha=mK^{2r} 2^{r} configurations(why?). If M runs on w for more than α steps, and does not use more than 2^{r} squares of its tape, then M must be in the one configuration at least twice(pigeonhole principle), in which case M would enter an infinite loop on input w. Based on this, we design a machine M* that decides L that works as follows:
M* runs M on w for at most α+1 steps.
If M accepts w which steps with using at most 2^{r} squares, M* halts and accepts.
If M rejects w within α steps with using at most 2^{r} squares, M* halts and rejects.
If M goes beyond 2^{r} squares, M* halts and rejects.
If M does not halt and does not go beyond 2^{r} squares, M* rejects.
Note: To know the definition of configurations and the details, reader may refer to "Introduction to theory of computation Michael Sipser, Chapter 8 Space complexity)
(b): Recursive: The reason is we can assume L(M2)=∑* and hence any TM (M1) will be definitely subset of L(M2). So we only need to see that M1 is a valid Turing machine and no need to check whether it is subset of L(M2) as it is obviously subset of L(M2)=∑*. Checking validity of Turing machine is always a halting process, hence it is recursive.
(c): L={(M,w)M is a TM that accepts w using at most 2^{w} squares of its tape}.
Recursive: Let m be he number of states in M, and k be the size of the alphabet that M uses, and r=w. If M uses at most 2^{r} squares of its tape, then there are at most Alpha=mK^{2r} 2^{r} configurations(why?). If M runs on w for more than α steps, and does not use more than 2^{r} squares of its tape, then M must be in the one configuration at least twice(pigeonhole principle), in which case M would enter an infinite loop on input w. Based on this, we design a machine M* that decides L that works as follows:
M* runs M on w for at most α+1 steps.
If M accepts w which steps with using at most 2^{r} squares, M* halts and accepts.
If M rejects w within α steps with using at most 2^{r} squares, M* halts and rejects.
If M goes beyond 2^{r} squares, M* halts and rejects.
If M does not halt and does not go beyond 2^{r} squares, M* rejects.
Note: To know the definition of configurations and the details, reader may refer to "Introduction to theory of computation Michael Sipser, Chapter 8 Space complexity)
Question 23 
Consider Euler's Φ function given by
Φ(n)=nπ_{pn}(1(1/p))
Where p runs over all the primes dividing n. What is the value of Φ(45)?
Φ(n)=nπ_{pn}(1(1/p))
Where p runs over all the primes dividing n. What is the value of Φ(45)?
3  
12  
6  
24 
Question 23 Explanation:
Φ(45) → Φ(9*5)
→ Φ(3^{2} * 5)
→ Φ(3^{2}) * Φ(5)
→ Φ(3^{2}  3,^{(21)}) * (51)
= 24
Remember Formula:
If p is prime then Φ(p) = (p1)
and if p is not prime and it's in prime power k from then Φ(p^{k}) = p^{k}  p(k1)
→ Φ(3^{2} * 5)
→ Φ(3^{2}) * Φ(5)
→ Φ(3^{2}  3,^{(21)}) * (51)
= 24
Remember Formula:
If p is prime then Φ(p) = (p1)
and if p is not prime and it's in prime power k from then Φ(p^{k}) = p^{k}  p(k1)
Question 24 
Consider double hashing of the form
h(k,i)=(h _{1} (k)+ih_{ 2} (k)) mod m
Where h _{1} (k)=k mod m
h _{2} (k)=1+(k mod n)
Where n=m1and m=701
for k=123456, what is the difference between first and second probes in terms of slots?
h(k,i)=(h _{1} (k)+ih_{ 2} (k)) mod m
Where h _{1} (k)=k mod m
h _{2} (k)=1+(k mod n)
Where n=m1and m=701
for k=123456, what is the difference between first and second probes in terms of slots?
255  
256  
257  
258 
Question 24 Explanation:
Given h(k,i)=h1(k)+ih2(k)
where h1(k)=k mod m
h2(k)=1+k mod n
where n=m1 and m=701. For k=123456
h1(k)=123456 mod 701
h1(k)=80
h2(k)=1+(123456 mod 700)
h2(k)=1+256=257
1st probe: i=1
h(k,i)=h1(k)+ih2(k)
h(k,1)=h1(k)+ih2(k)
h(k,1)=80+257=337
h(k,1)=337
2nd probe: i=2
h(k,2)=80+2257
h(k,2)=80+514
h(k,2)=594
∴ Difference h(k,2)h(k,1)
594337
257
where h1(k)=k mod m
h2(k)=1+k mod n
where n=m1 and m=701. For k=123456
h1(k)=123456 mod 701
h1(k)=80
h2(k)=1+(123456 mod 700)
h2(k)=1+256=257
1st probe: i=1
h(k,i)=h1(k)+ih2(k)
h(k,1)=h1(k)+ih2(k)
h(k,1)=80+257=337
h(k,1)=337
2nd probe: i=2
h(k,2)=80+2257
h(k,2)=80+514
h(k,2)=594
∴ Difference h(k,2)h(k,1)
594337
257
Question 25 
At a particular time of computation, the value of a counting semaphore is 7. Then 20 P(wait) operations and 15 V(signal) operations are completed on this semaphore. What is the resulting value of the semaphore?
28  
12  
2  
42 
Question 25 Explanation:
In counting semaphore, Wait operations will decrease the value and signal operations will increase the value.
Initially counting semaphore value is 7.
20 P(wait) operations= 20
15 V(Signal) operation= +15
= 720+15
= 2
Initially counting semaphore value is 7.
20 P(wait) operations= 20
15 V(Signal) operation= +15
= 720+15
= 2
Question 26 
Software validation mainly checks for inconsistencies between
Use cases and user requirements  
Implementation and system design blueprints  
Detailed specifications and user requirements  
Function specifications and use cases 
Question 26 Explanation:
Software validation checks that the software product satisfies or fits the intended use (highlevel checking), i.e., the software meets the user requirements, not as specification artifacts or as needs of those who will operate the software only; but, as the needs of all stakeholders (such as users, operators, administrators, managers, investors, etc.). There are two ways to perform software validation: internal and external. During internal software validation, it is assumed that the goals of the stakeholders were correctly understood and that they were expressed in the requirement artifacts precisely and comprehensively. If the software meets the requirement specification, it has been internally validated. External validation happens when it is performed by asking the stakeholders if the software meets their needs. Different software development methodologies call for different levels of user and stakeholder involvement and feedback; so, external validation can be a discrete or a continuous event.
Question 27 
Shiftreduce parser consists of
(a) input buffer
(b) stack
(c) parse table
choose the correct option from those given below:
(a) input buffer
(b) stack
(c) parse table
choose the correct option from those given below:
(a) and (b) only  
(a) and (c) only  
(c) only  
(a), (b) and (c) 
Question 27 Explanation:
Shiftreduce parser consists of
(a) input buffer
(b) stack
(c) parse table
(a) input buffer
(b) stack
(c) parse table
Question 28 
For a statement
A language L ⊆ Σ* is recursive if there exists some Turing machine M
Which of the following conditions is satisfied for any string w?
A language L ⊆ Σ* is recursive if there exists some Turing machine M
Which of the following conditions is satisfied for any string w?
If w ε L, then m accepts w and M will not halt  
If w ∉ L, then M accepts w and M will halt by reaching at final state  
If w ∉ L, then M halts without reaching to acceptable state  
If w ε L, then M halts without reaching to an acceptable state 
Question 28 Explanation:
If language is recursive then language have Turing machine will always halt in final state (acceptable state) for strings belongs to language and always halt in non final state when string is not in language.
Hence option 3 is correct.
Hence option 3 is correct.
Question 29 
Kmean clustering algorithm has clustered the given 8 observations into 3 clusters after 1st iteration as follows:
C1 : {(3,3), (5,5), (7,7)}
C2 : {(0,6), (6,0), (3,0)}
C3 : {(8,8),(4,4)}
What will be the Manhattan distance for observation (4,4) from cluster centroid C1 in second iteration?
C1 : {(3,3), (5,5), (7,7)}
C2 : {(0,6), (6,0), (3,0)}
C3 : {(8,8),(4,4)}
What will be the Manhattan distance for observation (4,4) from cluster centroid C1 in second iteration?
2  
√2  
0  
18 
Question 30 
What is the output of the following JAVA program?
public class Good{
Private int m;
Public Good(int m){this.m=m;}
public Boolean equals(Good n){return n.m=m;}
public static void main(String args [ ]){
Good m1=new Good(22);
Good m2=new Good(22);
Object S1=new Good(22);
Object S2=new good(22);
System.out.println(m1.equals(m2));
System.out.println(m1.equals(s2));
System.out.println(m1.equals(s2));
System.out.println(s1.equals(m2));
}
}
public class Good{
Private int m;
Public Good(int m){this.m=m;}
public Boolean equals(Good n){return n.m=m;}
public static void main(String args [ ]){
Good m1=new Good(22);
Good m2=new Good(22);
Object S1=new Good(22);
Object S2=new good(22);
System.out.println(m1.equals(m2));
System.out.println(m1.equals(s2));
System.out.println(m1.equals(s2));
System.out.println(s1.equals(m2));
}
}
True, True, False, False  
True, false, True, false  
True, True, False, True  
true, False, False, False  
None of the above

Question 30 Explanation:
Note: Question is wrong, Change boolean to int data type then possibility option 4). Marks will be added to all.
Question 31 
In relational database, if a relation R is in BCNF, then which of the following is true about relation R?
R is in 4NF  
R is not in 1NF  
R is in 2Nf and not in 3NF  
R is in 2NF and 3NF 
Question 31 Explanation:
If a relation R is in BCNF then R will be in 1NF, 2NF and 3NF. Since the requirement of a BCNF relation is that the left hand side of each functional dependency should be a super key because of this, neither there will be a partial dependency in relation R nor there will be transitive dependency.
Question 32 
In relational database management, which of the following is/are property/properties of candidate key?
P:Uniqueness
Q: Irreducibility
P:Uniqueness
Q: Irreducibility
P only  
Q only  
Both P and Q  
Neither P nor Q 
Question 32 Explanation:
Let K be a subset of the heading of relvar R. Then K is a candidate key (or just key for short) for R if and only if it possesses both of the following properties:
Uniqueness: No valid value for R contains two distinct tuples with the same value for K.
Irreducibility: No proper subset of K has the uniqueness property.
Uniqueness: No valid value for R contains two distinct tuples with the same value for K.
Irreducibility: No proper subset of K has the uniqueness property.
Question 33 
Consider three intensive processes, which requires 10,20 and 30 units of time and arrive at times 0,2 and 6 respectively. how many context switches are needed if the operating system implements a shortest remaining time first scheduling algorithm? Do not count the context switches at time zero ad at the end
4  
2  
3  
1 
Question 33 Explanation:
Total no.of context switches is 2.
Question 34 
Which of the following statements is/are true?
P: In a scripting language like javaScript, types are typically associated with values, not variables.
Q: It is not possible to show images on a web page without the tag of HTML
Select the correct answer from the given below:
P: In a scripting language like javaScript, types are typically associated with values, not variables.
Q: It is not possible to show images on a web page without the tag of HTML
Select the correct answer from the given below:
P only  
Q only  
Both P and Q  
neither P nor Q 
Question 34 Explanation:
P : True. Variables are typically not declared in scripting language is, so there is no opportunity to assign them a type.
Question 35 
Match ListI with ListII:
ListI ListII
(a) Prims's algorithm (i)O(V^{3} logV)
(b) Dijkstra's algorithm (ii) O(VE^{2})
(c) Faster all pairs shortest path (iii) O(ElogV)
(d) Edmondskarp algorithm (iv) O(V^{2})
ListI ListII
(a) Prims's algorithm (i)O(V^{3} logV)
(b) Dijkstra's algorithm (ii) O(VE^{2})
(c) Faster all pairs shortest path (iii) O(ElogV)
(d) Edmondskarp algorithm (iv) O(V^{2})
(a)(ii); (b)(iv); (c)(i); (d)(iii)  
(a)(iii); (b)(iv); (c)(i); (d)(ii)  
(a)(ii); (b)(i); (c)(iv); (d)(iii)  
(a)(iii); (b)(i) (c)(iv); (d)(ii) 
Question 35 Explanation:
Prim’s algorithm→ O(ElgV)
Dijsktra’s algorithm → O(v ^{2} )
Faster allpair shortest path→ O(V ^{3} logV)
Edmondskarp algorithm → O(VE ^{2} )
Dijsktra’s algorithm → O(v ^{2} )
Faster allpair shortest path→ O(V ^{3} logV)
Edmondskarp algorithm → O(VE ^{2} )
Question 36 
How many address lines and data lines are required to provide a memory capacity of 16K x 16?
10,4  
16,16  
14,16  
4,16 
Question 36 Explanation:
16K x 16 means we have 2 ^{14} address lines and 16 data lines.
In order to provide 2 ^{14} address lines we need 14 address lines and in order to provide 16 data lines we need 16 data lines.
In order to provide 2 ^{14} address lines we need 14 address lines and in order to provide 16 data lines we need 16 data lines.
Question 37 
Consider the following steps:
S_{1} : Characterize the structure of an optimal solution
S_{2} : Computer the value of an optimal solution in bottomup fashion
Which of the step(s) is/are common to both dynamic programming and greedy algorithms?
S_{1} : Characterize the structure of an optimal solution
S_{2} : Computer the value of an optimal solution in bottomup fashion
Which of the step(s) is/are common to both dynamic programming and greedy algorithms?
Only S_{1}  
Only S_{2}  
both S_{1} and S_{2}  
neither S_{1} nor S_{2} 
Question 37 Explanation:
Dynamic Programming will satisfy both properties but greedy is not following both properties.
Question 38 
Match ListI with ListII:
Where L1 : Regular language
L2 : Contextfree language
L3 : Recursive language
L4 : Recursively enumerable language
ListI List2
(a) L'_{3} U L_{4} (i) Contextfree language
(b) L'_{2} U L_{3} (ii) Recursively enumerable language
(c) L_{1}* ∩ L_{2} (iii) Recursive language
Choose the correct from those given below:
Where L1 : Regular language
L2 : Contextfree language
L3 : Recursive language
L4 : Recursively enumerable language
ListI List2
(a) L'_{3} U L_{4} (i) Contextfree language
(b) L'_{2} U L_{3} (ii) Recursively enumerable language
(c) L_{1}* ∩ L_{2} (iii) Recursive language
Choose the correct from those given below:
(a)(ii); (b)(i); (c)(iii)  
(a)(ii); (b)(iii); (c)(i)  
(a)(iii); (b)(i); (c)(ii)  
(a)(i); (b)(ii); (c)(iii) 
Question 38 Explanation:
(a): L3 is a recursive language and we know that recursive languages are closed under complement operation. And union of recursive language and recursively enumerable language is recursively enumerable.
Hence (a) matches with (ii).
(b): Context free language are not closed under complement operation. So consider L2 as recursive language because context free languages are also recursive language so we can say that L2 is recursive language and we know that recursive languages are closed under complement operation.
Now union of ~L2 and L3 will result in recursive language because both ~L2 and L3 are recursive language and recursive languages are closed under union operation.
Hence (b) matches with (iii)
(c): L1 is regular language and regular languages are closed under kleene closure operation.
Hence L 1 * is a regular language. And intersection of L 1 and L 2 results into a regular language.
But, since all regular languages are context free language then we can say that intersection of L 1 and L 2 results into a context free language.
Hence (c) matches with (i).
Hence (a) matches with (ii).
(b): Context free language are not closed under complement operation. So consider L2 as recursive language because context free languages are also recursive language so we can say that L2 is recursive language and we know that recursive languages are closed under complement operation.
Now union of ~L2 and L3 will result in recursive language because both ~L2 and L3 are recursive language and recursive languages are closed under union operation.
Hence (b) matches with (iii)
(c): L1 is regular language and regular languages are closed under kleene closure operation.
Hence L 1 * is a regular language. And intersection of L 1 and L 2 results into a regular language.
But, since all regular languages are context free language then we can say that intersection of L 1 and L 2 results into a context free language.
Hence (c) matches with (i).
Question 39 
A fully connected network topology is a topology in which there is a direct link between all pairs of nodes. Given a fully connected network with n nodes, the number of direct links as a function of n can be expressed as
n(n+1)/2  
(n+1)/2  
n/2  
n(n1)/2 
Question 39 Explanation:
In a fully connected network, if there are n nodes in network then each node will be connected with remaining (n1) nodes. So this way the total number of links will be n(n1). And since for communication between any two nodes we don’t need two links, they can communicate using a single link between them so the same way we need [n(n1)]/2 links in a fully connected network.
Ex: Take n=5
n(n1)/2
= 5(51)/2
= 20/2
= 10
Ex: Take n=5
n(n1)/2
= 5(51)/2
= 20/2
= 10
Question 40 
Suppose that the register A and register K have the bit configuration. Only the three leftmost bits of A are compared with memory words because K has 1's in these positions. Because of its organization, this type of memory is uniquely suited to parallel seches by data association. This type of memory is known as
RAM  
ROM  
Content addressable memory  
Secondary memory 
Question 40 Explanation:
Contentaddressable memory (CAM) is a special type of computer memory used in certain veryhighspeed searching applications. It is also known as associative memory or associative storage and compares input search data (tag) against a table of stored data, and returns the address of matching data (or in the case of associative memory, the matching data).
Question 41 
What will be the number of states when a MOD2 counter is followed by a MOD5 counter?
5  
10  
15  
20 
Question 41 Explanation:
Here, we are multiplying the mod values.
Given mod values are 2 and 5
= 2*5
= 10
Given mod values are 2 and 5
= 2*5
= 10
Question 42 
In the context of software testing, which of the following statements is/are NOT correct?
P: A minimal test set that achieves 100% path coverage will also achieve 100% statement coverage.
Q: A minimal test set that achieves 100% path coverage will generally detect more faults than one that achieves 100% statement coverage
R: A minimal test set that achieves 100% statement coverage will generally detect more faults than one that achieves 100% branch coverage
P: A minimal test set that achieves 100% path coverage will also achieve 100% statement coverage.
Q: A minimal test set that achieves 100% path coverage will generally detect more faults than one that achieves 100% statement coverage
R: A minimal test set that achieves 100% statement coverage will generally detect more faults than one that achieves 100% branch coverage
R only  
Q only  
P and Q only  
Q and R only 
Question 42 Explanation:
A minimal test set that achieves 100% statement coverage will generally detect more faults than one that achieves 100% branch coverage
Question 43 
Consider the following:
(a) Evolution
(b) Selection
(c) reproduction
(d) Mutation
Which of the following are found in genetic algorithms?
(a) Evolution
(b) Selection
(c) reproduction
(d) Mutation
Which of the following are found in genetic algorithms?
(b),(c) and (d) only  
(b) and (d) only  
(a),(b),(c) and (d)  
(a),(b) and (d) only 
Question 43 Explanation:
Five phases are considered in a genetic algorithm.
1.Initial population
2.Fitness function
3.Selection
4.Crossover
5.Mutation Note: According to official key optionC is correct.
1.Initial population
2.Fitness function
3.Selection
4.Crossover
5.Mutation Note: According to official key optionC is correct.
Question 44 
The value of the derivative of the sigmoid function given by
f(x)= 1 / (1+e^{(2x)}) at x=0 is
f(x)= 1 / (1+e^{(2x)}) at x=0 is
0  
1/2  
1/4  
∞ 
Question 45 
Consider the poset ({3,5,9,15,24,45},).
Which of the following is correct for the given poset?
Which of the following is correct for the given poset?
There exists a greatest element and a least element
 
There exists a greatest element but not a least element
 
There exists a least element but not a greatest element
 
There does not exist a greatest element and a least element

Question 45 Explanation:
Hasse diagram:
There is no greatest element because this element would have to be a number that all other elements divide. Since our maximal elements are 24 and 45, and they do not divide each other, we do not have a greatest element.
There is no least element because this element would be a number that can divide all other elements. Since our minimal elements are 3 and 5, and they do not divide each other, we do not have a least element.
There is no greatest element because this element would have to be a number that all other elements divide. Since our maximal elements are 24 and 45, and they do not divide each other, we do not have a greatest element.
There is no least element because this element would be a number that can divide all other elements. Since our minimal elements are 3 and 5, and they do not divide each other, we do not have a least element.
Question 47 
Hadoop(a big data tool) works with number of related tools. Choose from the following, the common tools included into Hadoop:
MySQl, Google API and Map reduce  
Map reduce, Scala and hummer
 
Map reduce, H base and Hive
 
Map reduce, hummer and Heron

Question 47 Explanation:
The common tools included into Hadoop are mainly
Map reduce
H base
Hive
Map reduce
H base
Hive
Question 48 
Consider the following properties with respect to a flow network G=(V,E) in which a flow is a realvalued function f:VxV→ R
P_{1} : For all u,vεV, f(u,v)= f(v,u)
P_{2} : Σ_{vεV} f(u,v)=0 for all uεV
Which one of the following is/are correct?
P_{1} : For all u,vεV, f(u,v)= f(v,u)
P_{2} : Σ_{vεV} f(u,v)=0 for all uεV
Which one of the following is/are correct?
Only P_{1}  
Only P_{1}  
Both P_{1} and _{2}  
Neither P_{1} nor P_{2} 
Question 48 Explanation:
A pseudoflow is a function f : V × V → ℝ that satisfies the following two constraints for all nodes u and v:
Skew symmetry: Only encode the net flow of units between a pair of nodes u and v that is:
f(u, v) = −f(v, u).
Capacity constraint: An arc's flow cannot exceed its capacity, that is: f (u, v) ≤ c(u, v).
Given a pseudoflow f in a flow network, it is often useful to consider the net flow entering a given node v, that is, the sum of the flows entering v.
The excess function x_{f} : V → ℝ is defined by x_{f} (u) = ∑_{v∈V} f (v, u). A node u is said to be active if x_{f} (u) > 0, deficient if x_{f} (u) < 0 or conserving if x_{f} (u) = 0.
These final definitions lead to two strengthenings of the definition of a pseudoflow:
A preflow is a pseudoflow that, for all v ∈ V \{s}, satisfies the additional constraint:
Nondeficient flows: The net flow entering the node v is nonnegative, except for the source, which "produces" flow. That is: x_{f} (v) ≥ 0 for all v ∈ V \{s}.
A feasible flow, or just a flow, is a pseudoflow that, for all v ∈ V \{s, t}, satisfies the additional constraint:
Flow conservation: The net flow entering the node v is 0, except for the source, which "produces" flow, and the sink, which "consumes" flow. That is: x_{f} (v)=0 for all v∈V \{s, t}.
The value of a feasible flow f, denoted  f , is the net flow into the sink t of the flow network. That is,  f  = x_{f} (t).
Skew symmetry: Only encode the net flow of units between a pair of nodes u and v that is:
f(u, v) = −f(v, u).
Capacity constraint: An arc's flow cannot exceed its capacity, that is: f (u, v) ≤ c(u, v).
Given a pseudoflow f in a flow network, it is often useful to consider the net flow entering a given node v, that is, the sum of the flows entering v.
The excess function x_{f} : V → ℝ is defined by x_{f} (u) = ∑_{v∈V} f (v, u). A node u is said to be active if x_{f} (u) > 0, deficient if x_{f} (u) < 0 or conserving if x_{f} (u) = 0.
These final definitions lead to two strengthenings of the definition of a pseudoflow:
A preflow is a pseudoflow that, for all v ∈ V \{s}, satisfies the additional constraint:
Nondeficient flows: The net flow entering the node v is nonnegative, except for the source, which "produces" flow. That is: x_{f} (v) ≥ 0 for all v ∈ V \{s}.
A feasible flow, or just a flow, is a pseudoflow that, for all v ∈ V \{s, t}, satisfies the additional constraint:
Flow conservation: The net flow entering the node v is 0, except for the source, which "produces" flow, and the sink, which "consumes" flow. That is: x_{f} (v)=0 for all v∈V \{s, t}.
The value of a feasible flow f, denoted  f , is the net flow into the sink t of the flow network. That is,  f  = x_{f} (t).
Question 49 
Let A_{α0} denotes the αcut of a fuzzy set A at α_{0}. If α_{1} < α_{2} , then
A_{α1} ⊇ A_{α2}  
A_{α1} ⊃ A_{α2}  
A_{α1} ⊆ A_{α2}  
A_{α1} ⊂ A_{α2} 
Question 49 Explanation:
Question 50 
Which of the following statements is/are true with regard to various layers in the Internet stack?
P: At the link layer, a packet of transmitted information is called a frame
Q: At the network layer, a packet of transmitted information is called a segment
P only  
Q only
 
P and Q
 
Neither P nor Q 
Question 50 Explanation:
Question 51 
Consider the following Ccode fragment running on a 32bit x86 machine:
typedef struct
{
union
{
Unsigned char a;
unsigned short b;
}
unsigned char c;
}S;
S B[10];
S*p=&B[4];
S*q=&B[5];
p→ U.b=0x1234;
/* structure S takes 32bits */
If M is the value of qp and N is the value of ((int) & (p→ c))((int)p), then (M,N) is
typedef struct
{
union
{
Unsigned char a;
unsigned short b;
}
unsigned char c;
}S;
S B[10];
S*p=&B[4];
S*q=&B[5];
p→ U.b=0x1234;
/* structure S takes 32bits */
If M is the value of qp and N is the value of ((int) & (p→ c))((int)p), then (M,N) is
(1,1)
 
(3,2)
 
(1,2)  
(4,4) 
Question 51 Explanation:
#include
typedef struct{
union
{
unsigned char a;
unsigned short b;
}U;
unsigned char c;
}S;
int main()
{
printf("Hello World");
S B[10]; // declaring array of 10 structures
S*p=&B[4]; // Assigning 4th array value to pointer p
S*q=&B[5]; // Assigning 5th array value to pointer q
p> U.b=0x1234; // Assigning a value to 4th structure array element's union short b
printf("qp %u\n",sizeof(p)); // value is 1, as pointer subtraction formula is (address of q  address of p) / size of structure
printf("%d\n",((int) & (p>c))((int)p)); // value is 2 the address difference between p starting address and ‘c’ address, between them is only short integer of 2 bytes
return 0;
}
typedef struct{
union
{
unsigned char a;
unsigned short b;
}U;
unsigned char c;
}S;
int main()
{
printf("Hello World");
S B[10]; // declaring array of 10 structures
S*p=&B[4]; // Assigning 4th array value to pointer p
S*q=&B[5]; // Assigning 5th array value to pointer q
p> U.b=0x1234; // Assigning a value to 4th structure array element's union short b
printf("qp %u\n",sizeof(p)); // value is 1, as pointer subtraction formula is (address of q  address of p) / size of structure
printf("%d\n",((int) & (p>c))((int)p)); // value is 2 the address difference between p starting address and ‘c’ address, between them is only short integer of 2 bytes
return 0;
}
Question 52 
Consider an LPP given as
Max Z=2x_{1}  x_{2} + 2x_{3}
Subject to the constraints
2x_{1} + x_{2} ≤ 10
x_{1} + 2x_{2}  2x_{3} ≤ 20
x_{1} + 2x_{3} ≤ 5
x_{1}, x_{2}, x_{3} ≥ 0
What shall be the solution of the LPP after applying first iteration of the Simplex Method?
Max Z=2x_{1}  x_{2} + 2x_{3}
Subject to the constraints
2x_{1} + x_{2} ≤ 10
x_{1} + 2x_{2}  2x_{3} ≤ 20
x_{1} + 2x_{3} ≤ 5
x_{1}, x_{2}, x_{3} ≥ 0
What shall be the solution of the LPP after applying first iteration of the Simplex Method?
x_{1}=5/2, x_{2}=0, x_{3}=0, Z=5  
x_{1}=0, x_{2}=0, x_{3}=5/2, Z=5  
x_{1}=0, x_{2}=5/2, x_{3}=0, Z= 5/2
 
x_{1}=0, x_{2}=0, x_{3}=10, Z=20 
Question 53 
A web application and its support environment has not been fully fortified against attack. Web engineers estimate that the likelihood of repelihood an attack is only 30 percent. The application does not contain sensitive or controversial information, so the threat probability is 25 percent. What is the integrity of the web application?
0.625  
0.725  
0.775  
0.825

Question 54 
Which of the following terms best describes Git?
Issue Tracking System  
Integrated Development Environment  
Distributed Version Control System  
WebBased Repository Hosting Service

Question 54 Explanation:
Git is a distributed version control system for tracking changes in source code during software development. It is designed for coordinating work among programmers, but it can be used to track changes in any set of files. Its goals include speed, data integrity, and support for distributed, nonlinear workflows.
Question 55 
How can the decision algorithm be constructed for deciding whether contextfree language L is finite?
(a) By Constructing redundant CFG in CNF generating language L
(b) By constructing nonredundant CFG G in CNF generating language L
(c) By constructing nonredundant CFG in CNF generating language L{∧} (∧ stands for null)
Which of the following is correct?
(a) By Constructing redundant CFG in CNF generating language L
(b) By constructing nonredundant CFG G in CNF generating language L
(c) By constructing nonredundant CFG in CNF generating language L{∧} (∧ stands for null)
Which of the following is correct?
(a) only  
(b) only  
(c) only  
None of(a),(b) and (c) 
Question 55 Explanation:
To test whether L(G) is finite, use the CNF conversion approach to find a CFG G'=(V', T, P', S) in CNF and with no useless symbols, generating L(G){ε}.
L(G') is finite if and only if L(G) is finite. A simple test for finiteness of a CNF grammar with no useless symbols is to draw a directed graph with a vertex for each variable and an edge from A and B if there is a production of the form A→BC or A→ CB for any C. Then the language generated is finite if and only if this graph has no cycles.
L(G') is finite if and only if L(G) is finite. A simple test for finiteness of a CNF grammar with no useless symbols is to draw a directed graph with a vertex for each variable and an edge from A and B if there is a production of the form A→BC or A→ CB for any C. Then the language generated is finite if and only if this graph has no cycles.
Question 56 
For which values of m and n does the complete bipartite graph k_{m,n} have a Hamilton circuit?
m≠n, m, n≥2  
m≠n, m, n≥3  
m=n, m, n≥2  
m=2, m, n≥3 
Question 56 Explanation:
let G=(AB,E) be a bipartite graph. Let G be Hamiltanion.
Then A=B
That is, there is the same number of vertices in A as there are in B.
Then A=B
That is, there is the same number of vertices in A as there are in B.
Question 57 
What is the name of the protocol that allows a client to send a broadcast message with its MAC address and receive an IP address in reply?
ARP  
DNS  
RARP  
ICMP 
Question 57 Explanation:
ARP maps 32bit logical (IP) address to 48bit physical address.
RARP maps 48bit physical address to 32bit logical (IP) address.
RARP maps 48bit physical address to 32bit logical (IP) address.
Question 58 
The RSA encryption algorithm also works in reverse, that is, you can encrypt a message with the private key and decrypt it using the public key. This property is used in
Intrusion detection systems  
Digital signatures  
Data Compression  
Certification 
Question 58 Explanation:
Explanation:In digital signature the message is encrypted using the sender's private key and decrypted by the receiver using the sender's public key.
Question 59 
Which of the following features is supported in the relational database model?
Complex datatypes  
Multivalued attributes  
Association with multiplicities  
Generalization relationship

Question 60 
Which of the following statements is/are TRUE?
P: In software engineering, defects that are discovered earlier are more expensive to fix
Q: A software design is said to be a good design, if the components are strongly cohesive and weakly coupled
Select the correct answer from the options given below:
P: In software engineering, defects that are discovered earlier are more expensive to fix
Q: A software design is said to be a good design, if the components are strongly cohesive and weakly coupled
Select the correct answer from the options given below:
P only  
Q only  
P and Q  
Neither P nor Q 
Question 60 Explanation:
Statement1: Earlier the defect is found lesser is the cost of defect. For example if error is found in the requirement specifications during requirements gathering and analysis, then it is somewhat cheap to fix it. The correction to the requirement specification can be done and then it can be reissued.
Question 61 
For a magnetic disk with concentric circular tracks, the seek latency is not linearly proportional to the seek distance due to
NonUniform distribution of requests
 
arm starting or stopping inertia  
higher capacity of tracks on the periphery of the plate  
use of unfair arm scheduling policies 
Question 61 Explanation:
For a magnetic disk with concentric circular tracks, the seek latency is not linearly proportional to the seek distance due to arm starting or stopping inertia.
Question 62 
How many states are there in a minimum state automata equivalent to regular expression given below?
regular expression is a*b(a+b)
regular expression is a*b(a+b)
1  
2  
3  
4 
Question 62 Explanation:
L={ba,bb,aba,abb,...}
Please note: it is asked about minimum finite automata (so its about min NFA and not min DFA)
Please note: it is asked about minimum finite automata (so its about min NFA and not min DFA)
Question 63 
How many bit strings of length ten either start with a 1 bit or end with two bits 00?
320  
480  
640  
768 
Question 63 Explanation:
→ Number of bit strings of length 10 that start with 1: 2^{9 }= 512.
→ Number of bit strings of length 10 that end with 00: 2^{8 }= 256
→ Number of bit strings of length 10 that start with 1 and end with 00: 2^{7 }= 128
→ Applying the subtraction rule, the number is 512+256128 = 640
→ Number of bit strings of length 10 that end with 00: 2^{8 }= 256
→ Number of bit strings of length 10 that start with 1 and end with 00: 2^{7 }= 128
→ Applying the subtraction rule, the number is 512+256128 = 640
Question 64 
Consider that a process has been allocated 3 frames and has a sequence of page referencing 1,2,1,3,7,4,5,6,3,1
What shall be the difference i page faults for the above string using the algorithm of LRU and Optimal page replacement for referencing the string?
What shall be the difference i page faults for the above string using the algorithm of LRU and Optimal page replacement for referencing the string?
2  
0  
1  
3 
Question 64 Explanation:
Question 65 
Software products need are adaptive maintenance for which of the following reasons?
To rectify bugs observed while the system is in use.  
When the customers need the product to run on new platforms  
To support the new features that users want it to support  
To overcome wear and tear caused by the repeated use of the software. 
Question 65 Explanation:
Maintenance: Maintenance can be referred as a process of enhancement in the software product according to the changing requirements of users.
4 types of maintenance:
1. Adaptive – modifying the system to cope with changes in the software environment (DBMS, OS).
2. Perfective – implementing new or changed user requirements which concern functional enhancements to the software
3. Corrective – diagnosing and fixing errors, possibly ones found by users.
4. Preventive – increasing software maintainability or reliability to prevent problems in the future.
4 types of maintenance:
1. Adaptive – modifying the system to cope with changes in the software environment (DBMS, OS).
2. Perfective – implementing new or changed user requirements which concern functional enhancements to the software
3. Corrective – diagnosing and fixing errors, possibly ones found by users.
4. Preventive – increasing software maintainability or reliability to prevent problems in the future.
Question 66 
Consider the following C++ function f() :
unsigned int f(unsigned int n)
{
unsigned int b=0;
while(n)
{
b+=n&1;
n>>=1;
}
return b;
}
The function f() returns the int that represents the___p___in the binary representation of positive integer n, where P is
unsigned int f(unsigned int n)
{
unsigned int b=0;
while(n)
{
b+=n&1;
n>>=1;
}
return b;
}
The function f() returns the int that represents the___p___in the binary representation of positive integer n, where P is
number of 0's  
number of bits  
number of consecutive 1's  
number of 1's 
Question 66 Explanation:
& operator does the binary and operation of both value and 1
when b += n & 1 is given
n and 1, both will be converted to binary and binary & operation is calculated
any number & 000000001
it will only compare the last bit of both numbers, if both right most bit is 1 then the value is incremented by 1 and the number n is right shifted that means it loses the value of right most bit and again new right most bit is binary anded with 1.
So the value is nothing but the number of 1's of the binary format of number.
when b += n & 1 is given
n and 1, both will be converted to binary and binary & operation is calculated
any number & 000000001
it will only compare the last bit of both numbers, if both right most bit is 1 then the value is incremented by 1 and the number n is right shifted that means it loses the value of right most bit and again new right most bit is binary anded with 1.
So the value is nothing but the number of 1's of the binary format of number.
Question 67 
The fault can be easily diagnosed in the microprogram control unit using diagnostic tools by maintaining the contents of
Flags and Counters
 
Registers and counters  
Flags and registers  
Flags, registers and counters

Question 67 Explanation:
The fault can be easily diagnosed in the microprogram control unit using diagnostics tools by maintaining the contents of flags, registers and counters.
Question 68 
The minimum number of page frames that must be allocated to a running process in a virtual memory environment is determined by
Page size  
Physical size of memory  
The instruction set architecture  
Number of processes in memory

Question 68 Explanation:
→ Based on Instruction Set Architecture each process can be need minimum no. of pages.
→ An ISA permits multiple implementations that may vary in performance, physical size and monetary cost.
→ An ISA permits multiple implementations that may vary in performance, physical size and monetary cost.
Question 69 
A processor can support a maximum memory of 4 GB where memory is word addressable and a word is 2 bytes. What will be the size of the address bus of the processor?
At least 28 bits  
At least 2 bytes
 
At least 31 bits  
Minimum 4 bytes

Question 69 Explanation:
Maximum Memory = 4GB = 2^{32} bytes
Size of a word = 2 bytes
Therefore, Number of words = 2^{32} / 2 = 2^{31}
So, we require 31 bits for the address bus of the processor.
Size of a word = 2 bytes
Therefore, Number of words = 2^{32} / 2 = 2^{31}
So, we require 31 bits for the address bus of the processor.
Question 70 
Match ListI with ListII:
ListI ListII
(a) Greedy bestfirst (i) Minimal cost (p)+h(p)
(b) Lowest costfirs (ii) Minimal h(p)
(c) A* algorithm (iii) Minimal cost (p)
Choose the correct option from those given below:
ListI ListII
(a) Greedy bestfirst (i) Minimal cost (p)+h(p)
(b) Lowest costfirs (ii) Minimal h(p)
(c) A* algorithm (iii) Minimal cost (p)
Choose the correct option from those given below:
(a)(i); (b)(ii); (c)(iii)  
(a)(iii);(b)(ii); (c)(i)  
(a)(i); (b)(iii); (c)(ii)  
(a)(ii); (b)(iii); (c)(i) 
Question 70 Explanation:
A* is an informed search algorithm, or a bestfirst search, it aims to find a path to the given goal node having the smallest cost. A* selects the path that minimizes
f(n)=g(n)+h(n)
where n is the next node on the path, g(n) is the cost of the path from the start node to n, and h(n) is a heuristic function that estimates the cost of the cheapest path from n to the goal.
Greedy Best First Search tries to expand the node that is closest to the goal, on the grounds that this is likely to lead to a solution quickly. Thus, it evaluates nodes by using just the heuristic function
f(n) = h(n).
f(n)=g(n)+h(n)
where n is the next node on the path, g(n) is the cost of the path from the start node to n, and h(n) is a heuristic function that estimates the cost of the cheapest path from n to the goal.
Greedy Best First Search tries to expand the node that is closest to the goal, on the grounds that this is likely to lead to a solution quickly. Thus, it evaluates nodes by using just the heuristic function
f(n) = h(n).
Question 71 
Which of the following are the primary objectives of risk monitoring in software project tracking?
P: To assess whether predicted risks do, in fact, occur
Q: To ensure that risk aversion steps defined for the risk are being properly applied
R: To collect information that can be used for future risk analysis
P: To assess whether predicted risks do, in fact, occur
Q: To ensure that risk aversion steps defined for the risk are being properly applied
R: To collect information that can be used for future risk analysis
Only P and Q  
Only P and R  
Only Q and R  
All the P,Q,R 
Question 71 Explanation:
Risk monitoring is a project tracking activity with three primary objectives:
(1) to assess whether predicted risks occur.
(2) to ensure that risk aversion steps defined for the risk are being properly applied; and
(3) to collect information that can be used for future risk analysis.
(1) to assess whether predicted risks occur.
(2) to ensure that risk aversion steps defined for the risk are being properly applied; and
(3) to collect information that can be used for future risk analysis.
Question 72 
On translating the expression given below into quadruple representation, how many operations are required?
(i*j)+(e+f)*(a*b+c)
5  
6  
3  
7 
Question 72 Explanation:
T1 = (i*j)
T2=(e+f)
T3=(a*b)
T4= (T3+c)
T5=T2 * T4
T6=T1 + T5
Hence 6 operations are required.
T2=(e+f)
T3=(a*b)
T4= (T3+c)
T5=T2 * T4
T6=T1 + T5
Hence 6 operations are required.
Question 73 
Consider the following statements regarding 2D transforms in computer graphics:
Both S1 and S2 are true  
Only S1 is true  
Only S2 is true
 
Both S1 and S2 are false

Question 74 
Which of the following UNIX/Linux pipes will count the number of lines in all the files having .c and .h as their extension in the current working directory?
cat *.ch  wc l  
cat *.[ch]  wc l  
cat *.[ch]  ls l  
cat *.[ch]  wc l 
Question 74 Explanation:
wc→ It performs word count.
cat→ Display content of a file.
 → pipe symbol. It passes the output of left command to right command.
cat *.[ch] amd cat *.[ch] both will display the content of the two extensions .c files and .h files however [ch] is the range matcher and can display the file contents *.d, *.e, *.f *.g and *.h files as well.
So the answer is 4
cat *.[ch]  wc l
cat→ Display content of a file.
 → pipe symbol. It passes the output of left command to right command.
cat *.[ch] amd cat *.[ch] both will display the content of the two extensions .c files and .h files however [ch] is the range matcher and can display the file contents *.d, *.e, *.f *.g and *.h files as well.
So the answer is 4
cat *.[ch]  wc l
Question 75 
The parallel bus arbitration technique uses an external priority encoder and a decoder. Suppose, a parallel arbiter has 5 bus arbiters. What will be the size of priority encoder and decoder respectively?
4x2, 2x4
 
2x4, 4x2  
3x8, 8x3  
8x3, 3x8 
Question 75 Explanation:
Question 76 
Which of the following is best running time to sort n integers in the range 0 to n^{2}1
O(log n)  
O(n)  
O(n log n)  
O(n^{2}) 
Question 76 Explanation:
Using merge, heap sort will get O(nlogn)
But using radix sort will get in linear time only. O(n)
But using radix sort will get in linear time only. O(n)
Question 77 
Following table has two attributes Employee_id and Manager_id, where Employee_id is a primary key and manager_id is a foreign key referencing Employee_id with ondelete cascade:
On deleting the table (20,40), the set of other tuples that must be deleted to maintain the referential integrity of table is
On deleting the table (20,40), the set of other tuples that must be deleted to maintain the referential integrity of table is
(30,35) only  
(30,35) and (35,20) only  
(35,20) only  
(40,45) and (25,40) only 
Question 77 Explanation:
If (20, 40) is deleted then the entry in manager_id containing 20 value will violate the referential integrity constraint so entry (35,20) is deleted because of deletion of (20,40).
Similarly entry (30,35) is deleted because of the deletion of entry (35,20).
After deletion of entry (30,35) referential integrity is maintained in given relation so no further deletion are made.
Hence correct option is option(2).
Similarly entry (30,35) is deleted because of the deletion of entry (35,20).
After deletion of entry (30,35) referential integrity is maintained in given relation so no further deletion are made.
Hence correct option is option(2).
Question 78 
Which of the following is an application of depthfirst search?
Only topological sort  
Only strongly connected components  
Both topological sort and strongly connected components  
Neither topological sort not strongly connected components 
Question 78 Explanation:
Both topological sort and strongly connected components are applications of DFS.
Topological sort time complexity is O(V+E)
Strongly connected components time complexity is O(V+E)
DFS time complexity is O(V+E)
Topological sort time complexity is O(V+E)
Strongly connected components time complexity is O(V+E)
DFS time complexity is O(V+E)
Question 79 
Consider the following grammar:
S→ XY
X→ YaY  a and y → bbX
Which of the following statements is/are true about the above grammar?
(a) Strings produced by the grammar can have consecutive three a's
(b) Every string produced by the grammar have alternate a and b
(c) Every string produced by the grammar have at least two a's
(d) Every string produced by the grammar have b's in multiple of 2.
S→ XY
X→ YaY  a and y → bbX
Which of the following statements is/are true about the above grammar?
(a) Strings produced by the grammar can have consecutive three a's
(b) Every string produced by the grammar have alternate a and b
(c) Every string produced by the grammar have at least two a's
(d) Every string produced by the grammar have b's in multiple of 2.
(a) only
 
(b) and (c) only
 
(d) only
 
(c) and (d) only

Question 79 Explanation:
L= { abba, bbaabbabba,.........................}
Statement (a) is not correct because the grammar can generate two consecutive a’s but not three consecutive a’s.
Statement (b) is not correct because the grammar can generate two b’s together it means that there is no alteration of “a” and “b”.
Statement (c) is correct because every string produced by the grammar have at least two a's. Statement (d) is correct because every string produced by the grammar have b's in multiple of 2.
Statement (a) is not correct because the grammar can generate two consecutive a’s but not three consecutive a’s.
Statement (b) is not correct because the grammar can generate two b’s together it means that there is no alteration of “a” and “b”.
Statement (c) is correct because every string produced by the grammar have at least two a's. Statement (d) is correct because every string produced by the grammar have b's in multiple of 2.
Question 80 
Consider a raster system with resolution 640 by 480. What size is frame buffer (in bytes) for this system to store 12 bits per pixel?
450 kilobytes  
500 Kilobytes  
350 kilobytes  
400 kilobytes 
Question 80 Explanation:
8 bits = 1 byte.
A framebuffer size of the systems are as follows:
= (640 x 480 x 12) bits / 8
= 450KB
A framebuffer size of the systems are as follows:
= (640 x 480 x 12) bits / 8
= 450KB
Question 81 
Using the phong reflectance model, the strength of the specular highlight is determined by the angle between
The view vector and the normal vector  
The light vector and the normal vector  
The light vector and the reflected vector
 
the reflected vector and the view vector 
Question 81 Explanation:
Specular highlights on objects appear, because the light reflected from the object hits viewer. Sometimes, we are hit directly by the light and the highlight appears to be very intense, and sometimes we are hit so slightly, that we basically don't see the specular highlight. The strength of this highlight depends on the cosine of the angle between the reflected vector and vector taken from the point at object to the viewer's position:
Question 82 
With respect to relational algebra, which of the following operations are included from mathematical set theory
(a) join
(b) Intersection
(c) Cartisian product
(d) Project
(a) join
(b) Intersection
(c) Cartisian product
(d) Project
(a) and (b)  
(b) and (c)  
(c) and (d)  
(b) and (d) 
Question 82 Explanation:
Only Intersection and cartesian product operations are included from mathematical set theory. The Join and Project operations are not there in mathematical set theory.
Question 83 
How many cards must be selected from a standard deck of 52 cards to guarantee that at least three hearts are present among them?
9  
13  
17  
42 
Question 84 
Which of the following is an example of unsupervised neural network?
Back propagation network  
Hebb network  
Associative memory network
 
Selforganizing feature map 
Question 84 Explanation:
A selforganizing map (SOM) or selforganizing feature map (SOFM) is a type of artificial neural network (ANN) that is trained using unsupervised learning to produce a lowdimensional (typically twodimensional), discretized representation of the input space of the training samples, called a map, and is therefore a method to do dimensionality reduction. Selforganizing maps differ from other artificial neural networks as they apply competitive learning as opposed to errorcorrection learning (such as backpropagation with gradient descent), and in the sense that they use a neighborhood function to preserve the topological properties of the input space.
Question 85 
There are many sorting algorithms based on comparison. The running time of heap sort algorithm is O(nlogn). Let P, but unlike Q, heapsort sorts in place where (P,Q) is equal to
Merge sort, Quick sort  
Quick sort, Insertion sort  
Insertion sort, Quick sort  
insertion sort, Merge sort 
Question 85 Explanation:
This is an ambiguous question.
Method1:
Mergesort is having best,average and worst case time complexity is O(nlogn) as like hep sort. Quick sort is also same like heap and merge except worst case time complexity is O(n^{2}). According to question, P is merge sort and Q is quick sort.
Method2:
Heap sort and insertion sort is not following divide and conquer technique. So, it is same like P.
Merge sort follows Divide and Conquer. So, it is not like Q.
Note: Official Key given answer is Option4
Method1:
Mergesort is having best,average and worst case time complexity is O(nlogn) as like hep sort. Quick sort is also same like heap and merge except worst case time complexity is O(n^{2}). According to question, P is merge sort and Q is quick sort.
Method2:
Heap sort and insertion sort is not following divide and conquer technique. So, it is same like P.
Merge sort follows Divide and Conquer. So, it is not like Q.
Note: Official Key given answer is Option4
Question 86 
You are designed a link layer protocol for a link with bandwidth of 1 Gbps (109 bits/second) over a fiber link with length of 800 km. Assume the speed of light in this medium is 200000 km/second. What is the propagation delay in this link?
1 millisecond  
2 millisecond
 
3 millisecond
 
4 millisecond 
Question 86 Explanation:
T_{p}=Distance/Time
=800/200000
=4*103 sec
= 4 milliseconds
=800/200000
=4*103 sec
= 4 milliseconds
Question 87 
Consider the following two statements with respect to IPv4 in computer networking:
P: The loopback(IP) address is a member of class B network
Q: The loopback(IP) address is used to send a packet from host to itself
What can you say about the statements P and Q?
P: The loopback(IP) address is a member of class B network
Q: The loopback(IP) address is used to send a packet from host to itself
What can you say about the statements P and Q?
PTrue: QFalse  
PFalse; QTrue  
PTrue; QTrue  
PFalse; Qfalse 
Question 87 Explanation:
Explanation: The loopback(IP) address is a member of class A network. Any address between the range 127 . 0. 0. 0 to 127.255.255.255 can be used a loopback address but we can’t use 127 . 0. 0. 0 and 127.255.255.255 as loopback addresses.
The loopback(IP) address is used to send a packet from host to itself
The loopback(IP) address is used to send a packet from host to itself
Question 88 
The STRIPS representation is
a featurecentric representation  
an actioncentric representation  
a combination of featurecentric and actioncentric representation
 
a hierarchical featurecentric representation 
Question 88 Explanation:
The STRIPS representation for an action consists of
→The precondition, which is a set of assignments of values to features that must be true for the action to occur, and
→The effect, which is a set of resulting assignments of values to those primitive features that change as the result of the action.
→The precondition, which is a set of assignments of values to features that must be true for the action to occur, and
→The effect, which is a set of resulting assignments of values to those primitive features that change as the result of the action.
Question 89 
Which of the following has the same expressive power with regard to relational query language?
(a) Relational algebra and Domain relational calculus
(b) Relational algebra and Tuple relational calculus
(c) Relational algebra and Domain relational calculus restricted to safe expression
(d) Relational algebra and Tuple relational calculus restricted to safe expression
(a) Relational algebra and Domain relational calculus
(b) Relational algebra and Tuple relational calculus
(c) Relational algebra and Domain relational calculus restricted to safe expression
(d) Relational algebra and Tuple relational calculus restricted to safe expression
(a) and (b) only  
(c) and (d) only  
(a) and (c) only  
(b) and (d) only 
Question 89 Explanation:
Relational algebra, Domain relational calculus restricted to safe expression and Tuple relational calculus restricted to safe expression have the same expressive power.
Question 90 
Which of the following statements is/are true
P: An XML document with correct as specified by W3C is called “well formed”.
Q: An XML documented validated against a DTD is both “WellFormed” and “valid”.
R: is syntactically correct declaration for the version of an XML document.
Select the correct answer from the options given below:
P: An XML document with correct as specified by W3C is called “well formed”.
Q: An XML documented validated against a DTD is both “WellFormed” and “valid”.
R: is syntactically correct declaration for the version of an XML document.
Select the correct answer from the options given below:
P and Q only  
P and R only  
Q and R only  
All of P,Q and R 
Question 90 Explanation:
→ A XML document is said to be well formed if it has correct syntax like tags are case sensitive, elements must have closing tags, elements must be properly nested etc.
→ But when we associate a well formed XML document with a DTD( in which we define the structure of a document) and if that XML document validates all the definitions defined in DTD then that XML document is called as “valid” XML document.
→ Always remember that a “valid” XML document is also a “wellformed” XML document but a “wellformed” XML document is not necessarily a “valid” XML document
→ < ? xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF8" ? > is syntactically correct declaration for the version of an XML document.
→ But when we associate a well formed XML document with a DTD( in which we define the structure of a document) and if that XML document validates all the definitions defined in DTD then that XML document is called as “valid” XML document.
→ Always remember that a “valid” XML document is also a “wellformed” XML document but a “wellformed” XML document is not necessarily a “valid” XML document
→ < ? xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF8" ? > is syntactically correct declaration for the version of an XML document.
Question 91 
Consider the following pseudocode fragment in which an invariant for the loop is " m*x^{k} =p^{n}and k ≥ 0 " (Here, p and n are integer variables that have been initialized):
/* Preconditions:p ≥ 1 ∧ n ≥ 0 */
/* Assume that overflow never occurs */
int x=p; int k=n; int m=1;
while(k< >0)
{
if(k is odd) then m=m*x;
x=x*x;
k=⌊(k/2)⌋; /* floor(k/2) */
}
Which of the following must be true at the end of the while loop?
/* Preconditions:p ≥ 1 ∧ n ≥ 0 */
/* Assume that overflow never occurs */
int x=p; int k=n; int m=1;
while(k< >0)
{
if(k is odd) then m=m*x;
x=x*x;
k=⌊(k/2)⌋; /* floor(k/2) */
}
Which of the following must be true at the end of the while loop?
x=p^{n}  
m=p^{n}  
p=x^{n}  
p=m^{n} 
Question 91 Explanation:
Option1: It is not correct because of x=p^{log n}
Option3 and 4: These two statements are not correct because they were given left side value is much smaller than the right side.
So, option2 is correct.
Option3 and 4: These two statements are not correct because they were given left side value is much smaller than the right side.
So, option2 is correct.
Question 92 
The component in MVC is responsible for
User interface  
Security of the system  
Business logic and domain objects  
Translating between user interface actions/events and operation on the domain objects 
Question 92 Explanation:
"MVC" stands for "ModelViewController" and refers to three different realms of responsibility in the design of a graphical user interface.
When the MVC pattern is applied to a component, the model consists of the data that represents the current state of the component.
The view is simply the visual presentation of the component on the screen.
And the controller is the aspect of the component that carries out actions in response to events generated by the user (or by other sources such as timers).
The idea is to assign responsibility for the model, the view, and the controller to different objects.
When the MVC pattern is applied to a component, the model consists of the data that represents the current state of the component.
The view is simply the visual presentation of the component on the screen.
And the controller is the aspect of the component that carries out actions in response to events generated by the user (or by other sources such as timers).
The idea is to assign responsibility for the model, the view, and the controller to different objects.
Question 93 
Consider the game tree given below:
4  
7  
11  
12 
Question 93 Explanation:
Question 94 
Suppose that a computer program takes 100 seconds of execution time on a computer with multiplication operation responsible for 80 seconds of this time. How much do you have to improve the speed of multiplication operation if you are asked to execute this program four times faster.
14 times faster  
15 times faster  
16 times faster  
17 times faster 
Question 94 Explanation:
Total execution time of a program = time to execute multiplication operation + time to perform some other operations
100 = 80 +time to perform some other operations
time to perform some other operations = 20
Now they are saying that improve the speed of multiplication operation if you are asked to execute this program four times faster i.e.
New Total execution time of a program = 100/4
= 25
And according to question we have to keep the time to perform some other operations as it is i.e.20.
Hence time to perform multiplication operation after modification = (New Total execution time of a program  time to perform some other operations)
= 2520
= 5
So the speed of multiplication operation is improved by 80/5 time = 16 times.
100 = 80 +time to perform some other operations
time to perform some other operations = 20
Now they are saying that improve the speed of multiplication operation if you are asked to execute this program four times faster i.e.
New Total execution time of a program = 100/4
= 25
And according to question we have to keep the time to perform some other operations as it is i.e.20.
Hence time to perform multiplication operation after modification = (New Total execution time of a program  time to perform some other operations)
= 2520
= 5
So the speed of multiplication operation is improved by 80/5 time = 16 times.
Question 95 
Which of the following are not shared by the threads of the same process?
(a) Stack
(b) Registers
(c) Address Space
(d) Message Queue
(a) Stack
(b) Registers
(c) Address Space
(d) Message Queue
(a) and (d)  
(b) and (c)  
(a) and (b)  
(a), (b) and (c) 
Question 95 Explanation:
Question 96 
Consider the following statements:
S_{1} : For any integer n>1, a^{Φ(n)} = 1(mod n) for all a ∊ Z*_{n}, where Φ(n) is euler’s phi function.
S_{2} : If p is prime, then a^{p} = 1(mod p) for all a ∊ Z*_{p}
Which one of the following is are correct:
S_{1} : For any integer n>1, a^{Φ(n)} = 1(mod n) for all a ∊ Z*_{n}, where Φ(n) is euler’s phi function.
S_{2} : If p is prime, then a^{p} = 1(mod p) for all a ∊ Z*_{p}
Which one of the following is are correct:
Only S_{1}
 
Only S_{2}  
Both S_{1} and S_{2}  
Neither S_{1 } nor S_{2} 
Question 96 Explanation:
Euler's theorem (also known as the Fermat–Euler theorem or Euler's totient theorem) states that if ‘n’ and ‘a’ are coprime positive integers, then a^{Φ(n)} = 1(mod n)
So the S1 is true.
According to Fermat's Little Theorem,
Let ‘p’ be a prime and ‘a’ any integer, then a^{p} = a (mod p). So S2 is false.
So the S1 is true.
According to Fermat's Little Theorem,
Let ‘p’ be a prime and ‘a’ any integer, then a^{p} = a (mod p). So S2 is false.
Question 97 
You need 500 subnets, each with about 100 usable host addresses per subnet. What network mass will you assign using a class B network address?
255.255.255.252
 
255.255.255.128
 
255.255.255.0
 
255.255.254.0

Question 97 Explanation:
Explanation: We know that in class B addressing we have 16bit network ID and !6bits for host ID.
Since in question 500 subnets are required. Since 2^{9} = 512, So we need to take 9 bits from host id part of class B addressing in order to provide 500 subnets and with remaining 7 bits of host id we can easily 100 usable hosts per subnet because 2^{7 }= 128.
Since we know that Subnet mask contains 1’s in subnet id part and the 0's in host ID part. Hence subnet mask is:
11111111 . 11111111 . 11111111 . 10000000
In decimal form it can be represented as:
255 . 255 . 255 . 128
c
Since in question 500 subnets are required. Since 2^{9} = 512, So we need to take 9 bits from host id part of class B addressing in order to provide 500 subnets and with remaining 7 bits of host id we can easily 100 usable hosts per subnet because 2^{7 }= 128.
Since we know that Subnet mask contains 1’s in subnet id part and the 0's in host ID part. Hence subnet mask is:
11111111 . 11111111 . 11111111 . 10000000
In decimal form it can be represented as:
255 . 255 . 255 . 128
c
Question 98 
The ability to inject packets into the internet with false source address is known as :
ManintheMiddle attack  
IP phishing
 
IP sniffing
 
IP Spoofing 
Question 98 Explanation:
ManintheMiddle Attack: It is an attack where the attacker secretly relays and possibly alters the communications between two parties who believe they are directly communicating with each other.
IP Spoofing: is the creation of Internet Protocol (IP) packets with a false source IP address, for the purpose of impersonating another computing system.
IP Spoofing: is the creation of Internet Protocol (IP) packets with a false source IP address, for the purpose of impersonating another computing system.
Question 99 
Consider the complexity class CONP as the set of languages L such that L’ ε NP, and the following two statements:
S1 : P ⊆ CONP
S2 : If NP ≠ CONP, then P ≠ NP
Which of the following is/are correct?
S1 : P ⊆ CONP
S2 : If NP ≠ CONP, then P ≠ NP
Which of the following is/are correct?
Only S1  
Only S2  
Both S1 and S2  
Neither S1 nor S2 
There are 99 questions to complete.