Nielit Scientist-B CS 4-12-2016

Question 1
Palindromes can't be recognized by any Finite State Automata because
A
FSA cannot remember arbitrarily large amount of information
B
FSA cannot deterministically fix the midpoint
C
Even if the mid-Point is known an FSA cannot find whether the second half of the matches the first half
D
All of the above
Question 1 Explanation: 
It is the disadvantage or lack of property of a DFA that it cannot remember an arbitrarily such large amount of data which makes it incapable of accepting such languages like palindrome, reversal, etc.
Question 2
Process of analyzing relation schemas to achieve minimal redundancy and insertion or update anomalies is classified as:
A
normalized of data
B
denomination of data
C
isolation of data
D
denormalized of data
Question 2 Explanation: 
Normalization is a process of organizing the data in database to avoid data redundancy, insertion anomaly, update anomaly & deletion anomaly.
Most commonly used normal forms
First normal form(1NF)
Second normal form(2NF)
Third normal form(3NF)
Boyce & Codd normal form (BCNF)
Question 3
If L1 is CSL and L2 is regular language which of the following is false?
A
L1-L2 is not context free
B
L1 intersection L2 is context free
C
~L1 is context free
D
Both (A) and (C)
Question 3 Explanation: 
A is false: L1 is CSL and L2 is regular
L1-L2 means L1 intersection L2(complement) == CSL Intersect (regular complement)
Since regular is closed under complement hence regular complement= regular
So it is equal to CSL intersect regular which is equal to CSL
Option A says L1-L2 is not context free . Now as we get L1-L2 is CSL and every context free is also CSL, so L1-L2 can be CFL also.
Hence A is false.
Please note closure property gives worst case possibility Means CSL intersect regular is CSL it means in worst case it is CSL and hence it can be regular as well as CFL also but in worst case it must be CSL.
Similarly with other options
Question 4

The Circuit is equivalent to:
A
Ex-Or
B
NAND gate
C
OR gate
D
AND gate
Question 4 Explanation: 
Step-1: Here, A we are getting A’ and B we are getting B’. So, A’+B’
Step-2: (A’+B’)’=AB
Step-3: (AB)’=A’+B’
Solution: NAND or NOR but in options they are not given NOR. So, Final result is NAND
Question 5
Let G be a simple undirected planar graph on 10 vertices with 15 edges. If G is a connected graph, then the number of bounded faces in any embedding of G on the plane is equal to:
A
3
B
4
C
5
D
6
Question 5 Explanation: 
v - e + f = 2
‘v’ is number of vertices and ‘e’ is number of edges
‘f’ is number of faces including bounded and unbounded
10 - 15 + f = 2
f = 7
There is always one unbounded face, so the number of bounded faces = 6
Question 6
Which of the following is TRUE?
A
Turing machine is a simple mathematical model of general purpose computer
B
Turing machine is more powerful than finite automata
C
Turing Machine can be simulated by a general purpose computer
D
All of these
Question 6 Explanation: 
● A Turing machine is a mathematical model of computation that defines an abstract machine,which manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules.
● Despite the model's simplicity, given any computer algorithm, a Turing machine capable of simulating that algorithm's logic can be constructed.
● The machine operates on an infinite memory tape divided into discrete cells.
● The machine positions its head over a cell and "reads" (scans)the symbol there.
● Then, as per the symbol and its present place in a finite table of user-specified instructions, the machine (i) writes a symbol (e.g., a digit or a letter from a finite alphabet) in the cell (some models allowing symbol erasure or no writing), then (ii) either moves the tape one cell left or right (some models allow no motion, some models move the head), then (iii) (as determined by the observed symbol and the machine's place in the table) either proceeds to a subsequent instruction or halts the computation.
Question 7
The Knapsack problem belongs to which domain of problems?
A
Optimization
B
NP complete
C
Linear Solution
D
Sorting
Question 7 Explanation: 
The knapsack problem or rucksack problem is a problem in combinatorial optimization: Given a set of items, each with a weight and a value, determine the number of each item to include in a collection so that the total weight is less than or equal to a given limit and the total value is as large as possible
Question 8

What will be output if you will compile and execute the following C code?

void main()

{

char c=125;

c=c+10;

printf("%d",c);

}
A
135
B
115
C
-121
D
-8
Question 8 Explanation: 
As we know any data type shows cyclic properties
In our example the data type is char data type , so if you will increase or decrease the char
variables beyond its maximum or minimum value respectively it will repeat same value
according to following cyclic order
So,
125+1= 126
125+2= 127
125+3=-128
125+4=-127
125+5=-126
125+6=-125
125+7=-124
125+8=-123
125+9=-122
125+10=-121
Question 9
The first network:
A
ARPANET
B
NFSNET
C
CNNET
D
ASAPNET
Question 9 Explanation: 
The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet-switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP. Both technologies became the technical foundation of the Internet.
Question 10
The noise due to random behavior of charge carriers is:
A
Partition noise
B
Industrial noise
C
Shot noise
D
Flicker noise
Question 10 Explanation: 
Shot noise is caused due to random behaviour of charge carriers. Shot noise is generated due to random emission of electrons from cathodes in electron tubes. In semiconductor devices, shot noise is generated due to random generation and recombination of electron-hole pairs
Question 11
A sinusoidal signal is analog signal, because:
A
It can have a number of values between the negative and positive peaks
B
It is negative for one half cycle
C
It is positive for one half cycle
D
it has positive as well as negative values
Question 11 Explanation: 
● Analog signal is a continuous signal and digital signal is a discrete signal.
● A sinusoidal signal is a continuous signal with respect to time.
● Therefore, sinusoidal signal is a analog signal.
Question 12
The running time of quick sort algorithm depends heavily on the selection of:
A
No. of inputs
B
Arrangement of elements in an array
C
Size of elements
D
Pivot element
Question 12 Explanation: 
The running time of Quicksort will depend on how balanced the partitions are. If you are unlucky and select the greatest or the smallest element as the pivot, then each partition will separate only one element at a time, so the running time will be similar to Insertion Sort.However, Quicksort will usually pick a pivot that is mid-range, and it will partition the array into two parts.
Question 13

What will be output if you will compile and execute the following C code?

void main()

{

printf("%d",sizeof(5.2));
}
A
4
B
8
C
2
D
16
Question 13 Explanation: 
Size of is a special operator will return number of bytes of data types. By default system will take integer data type,if we are not specifying any data type. Total size is 4 bytes.
Question 14
The identification of common sub-expression and replacement of run time computations by compile-time computations is:
A
Local optimization
B
Constant folding
C
Loop Optimization
D
Data flow analysis
Question 14 Explanation: 
● Constant folding is the process of recognizing and evaluating constant expressions at compile time rather than computing them at runtime.It can more accurately propagate constants and simultaneously remove dead code
● Global optimization refers to finding the optimal value of a given function among all possible solution whereas local optimization finds the optimal value within the neighboring set of candidate solution.
● Loop optimization is the process of increasing execution speed and reducing the overheads associated with loops. It plays an important role in improving cache performance and making effective use of parallel processing capabilities. Most execution time of a scientific program is spent on loops; as such, many compiler optimization techniques have been developed to make them faster.
● Data-flow analysis is a technique for gathering information about the possible set of values calculated at various points in a computer program.
Question 15
Which of the following need not be a binary tree?
A
Search tree
B
Heap
C
AVL tree
D
B tree
Question 15 Explanation: 
B trees need not be the binary tree. B trees may have more than 2 children. The order of B tree is maximum number of children a node can have.
There are 15 questions to complete.

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Scientific Assistance 4-12-16

Question 1
In the following questions choose the word opposite in the meaning to the given word.
Antagonism:
A
Cordiality
B
Animosity
C
Hostility
D
Enmity
Question 1 Explanation: 
→ Actual meaning of Antagonism is active hostility or opposition.
→ Antonyms are hostility, enmity, antipathy, dislike, hatred, aggression.
Question 2
In the following questions choose the word opposite in the meaning to the given word.
Hasten:
A
Dash
B
Dawdle
C
Hurry
D
Scurry
Question 2 Explanation: 
→ Hasten meaning is be quick to do something.
→ Antonyms are dally, dawdle, dillydally, drag, hang (around or out), lag, linger, loiter, poke, tarry, amble, lumber, plod, saunter, shuffle, stroll.
Question 3
In the following questions, out of the four alternatives, choose the one which best expresses the meaning of the given word.
Camouflage:
A
Disguise
B