NTA-UGC-NET 2021 Dec & 2022 June Paper-2

Question 1
A trigger is
A
A statement that enables to start DBMS
B
A statement that is executed by the user when debugging an application program.
C
A condition the system tests for the validity of the database user.
D
A statement that is executed automatically by the system as a side effect of modification to the database.
       Database-Management-System       Trigger
Question 1 Explanation: 
A triggering event or statement is the SQL statement that causes a trigger to be fired.
A triggering event can be an INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement on a table.
A database trigger is procedural code that is automatically executed in response to certain events on a particular table or view in a database.
The trigger is mostly used for maintaining the integrity of the information on the database. For example, when a new record (representing a new worker) is added to the employees table, new records should also be created in the tables of the taxes, vacations and salaries.
Triggers can also be used to log historical data, for example to keep track of employees' previous salaries.
Question 2
RAD software process model stands for
A
Rapid Application Development
B
Relative Application Development
C
Rapid Application Design
D
Recent Application Development
       Software-Engineering       SDLC
Question 2 Explanation: 
The Rapid Application Development (or RAD) model is based on prototyping and iterative models with no (or less) specific planning.
RAD approach to software development means putting lesser emphasis on planning tasks and more emphasis on development and coming up with a prototype
Question 3
Alpha and Beta testing are forms of
A
White- Box Testing
B
Black- Box Testing
C
Acceptance Testing
D
System Testing
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing
Question 3 Explanation: 
Black-box testing is a method of software testing that examines the functionality of an application without peering into its internal structures or workings.
Alpha testing uses both black and white box testing while Beta testing uses only black box testing.
Alpha testing is performed by testers who are usually internal employees of the organization
Question 4
Match List I with List II:
List I                                        List II
(A) Least frequently used                    (I) Memory is distributed among processors
(B) Critical Section                         (II) Page replacement policy in cache memory
(C) Loosely coupled multiprocessor system  (III) Program section that once begin must complete execution before another processor access the same shared resource
(D) Distributed operating system organization (IV) O/S routines are distributed among available processors.
Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
A
(A)-(III), (B)-(II), (C)-(IV), (D)-(I)
B
(A)-(I), (B)-(II), (C)-(III), (D)-(IV)
C
(A)-(II), (B)-(III), (C)-(I), (D)-(IV)
D
(A)-(II), (B)-(I), (C)-(III), (D)-(IV)
       Operating-Systems       Critical-Section
Question 4 Explanation: 
A Page replacement algorithm is an algorithm that decides which pages should be written to disk or file, when a new page needs to be allocated.
Page replacement happens when a requested page is not in memory (page fault) and a free page cannot be used to satisfy the allocation, either because there are none, or because the number of free pages is lower than some threshold.
FIFO,LRU and optimal are examples of Page replacement algorithms
Critical section is a program section that once begin must complete execution before another processor accesses the same shared resource.
Question 5
If an operating system does not allow a child process to exist when the parent process has been terminated, this phenomenon is calls as-
A
Threading
B
Cascading termination
C
Zombie termination
D
Process killing
       Operating-Systems       Process-Threads
Question 5 Explanation: 
Whenever the process finishes executing its final statement and asks the operating system to delete it by using exit() system call.
If a process terminates either normally or abnormally, then all its children have to be terminated. This concept is referred to as cascading termination.
Question 6
Size and complexity are a part of
A
People Metrics
B
Project Metrics
C
Process Metrics
D
Product Metrics
       Software-Engineering       Product-Metrics
Question 6 Explanation: 
Software metrics can be classified into three categories −
Product metrics − Describes the characteristics of the product such as size, complexity, design features, performance, and quality level.
Process metrics − These characteristics can be used to improve the development and maintenance activities of the software.
Project metrics − These metrics describe the project characteristics and execution. Examples include the number of software developers, the staffing pattern over the life cycle of the software, cost, schedule, and productivity.
Question 7
Consider the following statements:
Statement I: Conservative 2 PL is a deadlock-free protocol.
Statement II: Thomas's write rule enforces conflict serializability.
Statement III: Timestamp ordering protocol ensures serializability based on the order of transaction timestamps.
Which of the following is correct?
A
Statement I, Statement II true and Statement III false
B
Statement I, Statement III true and Statement II false
C
Statement I, Statement II false and Statement III true
D
Statement I, Statement II and Statement III true
       Operating-Systems       Deadlock
Question 7 Explanation: 
TRUE: Statement I: Conservative 2 PL is a deadlock-free protocol.
TRUE: Statement II: Thomas's write rule enforces conflict serializability.
TRUE: Statement III: Timestamp ordering protocol ensures serializability based on the order of transaction timestamps.
Question 8
Hidden surface removal problem with minimal 3D pipeline can be solved with
A
Painter's algorithm
B
Window Clipping algorithm
C
Brute force rasterization algorithm
D
Flood fill algorithm
       Image-Processing       Window-Clipping-Algorithm
Question 8 Explanation: 
Hidden surface removal problem with minimal 3D pipeline can be solved with Window Clipping algorithm.
The z-buffer algorithm is the most widely used method for solving the hidden surface problem. It has the following major advantages over other hidden surface removal algorithms:
-No sorting is required. Models can be rendered in any order.
-No geometric intersection calculations are required. The algorithm produces the correct output even for intersecting or overlapping triangles.
-The algorithm is very simple to implement.

Disadvantages of the z-buffer algorithm include:
-A z-buffer requires a non-trivial amount of memory. For example, assuming each value in a z-buffer is a 32 bit floating point value, a rendered image that is 1024x768 pixels requires 3MB of memory to store its z-buffer.
-Every pixel of every primitive element must be rendered, even if many of them never write their color to the frame buffer.
-If two primitives are in exactly the same place in 3D space, as their positions are interpolated across their respective surfaces, the z values for each object will typically be different by a very small amount due to floating-point round-off errors. These small differences will alternate between primitives for adjacent pixels resulting in random and weird patterns in a rendering. This is called “z-fighting” and it can be avoided by never placing two primitives in the same location in 3D space.
Question 9
Match List I with List II:
List I                                    List II
(A) Firmware                   (I) Number of logical records into physical blocks
(B) Batch file                  (II) ASCII format
(C) Packing                    (III) Resource allocation
(D) Banker's Algorithm (IV) ROM
Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
A
(A)-(II), (B)-(I), (C)-(IV), (D)-(III)
B
(A)-(II), (B)-(I), (C)-(III), (D)-(IV)
C
(A)-(IV), (B)-(II), (C)-(I), (D)-(III)
D
(A)-(IV), (B)-(I), (C)-(II), (D)-(III)
       Operating-Systems       Deadlock
Question 9 Explanation: 
Firmware --> ROM
Batch file --> Number of logical records into physical blocks
Packing --> ASCII format
Banker’s algorithm is a resource allocation algorithm.
Question 10
Consider the properties of recursively enumerable sets:
(A) Finiteness
(B) Context Freedom
(C) Emptiness
Which of the following is true?
A
Only (A) and (B) are not decidable
B
Only (B) and (C) are not decidable
C
Only (C) and (A) are not decidable
D
All (A), (B) and (C) are not decidable
       Theory-of-Computation       Decidability-and-Undecidability
Question 10 Explanation: 
Finiteness and Emptiness are not decidable
Question 11
Fault base testing technique is
A
Unit testing
B
Beta testing
C
Stress testing
D
Mutation testing
       Software-Engineering       Software-testing
Question 11 Explanation: 
Mutation testing is a software testing type that is based on changes or mutations.
Changes are introduced into the source code to check whether the defined test cases can detect errors in the code.
Question 12
The condition num!=65 cannot be replaced by
A
num > 65 || num<65
B
!(num==65)
C
num-65
D
!(num-65)
       Programming       Operator
Question 12 Explanation: 
Except !(num-65) can be replaced by num!=65
There are 12 questions to complete.

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