## CIL Part - B

 Question 1
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
 A The cardinality ratio for a binary relationship specifies the maximum number of relationship instances that an entity can participate in. B The cardinality ratio for a binary relationship specifies the minimum number of relationship instances that an entity can participate in. C The partial participation constraint is also called existence dependency. D The cardinality ratio for a relationship specifies the average number of relationship instances that an entity can participate in.
Database-Management-System       ER-Model
Question 1 Explanation:
Cardinality: cardinality ratio for a binary relationship specifies the maximum number of relationship instances that an entity can participate in.
Participation: Participation for a binary relationship specifies the minimum number of relationship instances that an entity can participate in.
 Question 2
Which of the following represents the function of a Multiplexer?
 A Y= A+ B B Y = A | B C Y = A & B D Y = S ? A : B
Digital-Logic-Design       Combinational-Circuit
Question 2 Explanation:
Multiplexer : It also known as a data selector, is a device that selects between several input signals and forwards it to a single output line. A multiplexer of 2n inputs has n select lines, which are used to select which input line to send to the output. Here in fourth option “S” is used as select line to select either “A” or “B”.
A multiplexer can be used to implement if-else statements.
 Question 3
The prefix equivalent of the following infix expression is: a / b - c + d * e - a * c
 A - + - / a b c * d e * a c B + - - / a b c * d e * a c C - + / a b c - * d e * a c D - - + / a b c * d e * a c
Data-Structures       Prefix-Postfix-Expression
Question 3 Explanation:
a / b - c + d * e - a * c
* Start scanning the expression from RHS. * Push the operators on the top of the stack by ensuring that only high priority operator can be pushed over a low priority operator.
* If a low priority operator is encountered in expression while scanning it, and if top of stack have high priority operator then pop it and after that push low priority operator on top of stack.
* Print each operand just after scanning it.

 Question 4
Which of the following file type arguments is used in fopen() llibrary function to open a new file for both reading and writing and destroys the file if a file with the specified file-name already exists in the current directory ?
 A “w” B “w+” C “a+” D “r+”
Question 4 Explanation:
W+ : Create a text file for both reading and writing. If the given file exists, its contents are cleared unless it is a logical file.
A+ : Open a text file in append mode for reading or updating at the end of the file. The fopen() function creates the file if it does not exist.
W : Create a text file for writing. If the given file exists, its contents are destroyed unless it is a logical file.
A : Open a text file in append mode for writing at the end of the file. The fopen() function creates the file if it does not exist and is not a logical file.
R+ : Open a text file for both reading and writing. The file must exist.
 Question 5
Which of the following statements about IPv6 is FALSE?
 A IPSec support is an integral part of IPv6. B IPv6 has no way to distinguish delay-sensitive packets from bulk data transfers. C In comparison to IPA. IPv6 has improved header structure with less processing overhead. D IPv6 routers no longer have to fragment packets.
Computer-Networks       IPv6
Question 5 Explanation:
TRUE: IPSec support is an integral part of IPv6.
TRUE: IPv6 has no way to distinguish delay-sensitive packets from bulk data transfers.
FALSE: In comparison to IPA. IPv6 has improved header structure with less processing overhead.
An independent physician association (IPA) is a business entity organized and owned by a network of independent physician practices for the purpose of reducing overhead or pursuing business ventures such as contracts with employers, accountable care organizations (ACO) and/or managed care organizations (MCOs). There are substantial opportunities for innovation in delivery system modeling and benefit design in the creation of physician networks. Specifically, creation of practice networks involving patient-centered medical home (PCMH) practices may accelerate important and necessary changes in health care delivery.
TRUE: IPv6 routers no longer have to fragment packets.
 Question 6

Which of the following does not represent the total number of multiplications for multiplying four matrices of orders
20*2,2*30, 30*12 and 12*8?
 A 1232 B 3680 C 10320 D 8850
Algorithms       Dynamic-Programming
Question 6 Explanation:
Optimal Parenthesization is : (A((BC)D))
Optimal Cost is : 1232
 Question 7
To schedules are said to be______. If the order of any two conflicting operations is same in both the schedules.
 A conflict equivalent B schema equivalent C result equivalent D view equivalent
Database-Management-System       Transactions
Question 7 Explanation:
View-serializability of a schedule is defined by equivalence to a serial schedule (no overlapping transactions) with the same transactions, such that respective transactions in the two schedules read and write the same data values ("view" the same data values).
Conflict-serializability is defined by equivalence to a serial schedule (no overlapping transactions) with the same transactions, such that both schedules have the same sets of respective chronologically ordered pairs of conflicting operations (same precedence relations of respective conflicting operations).
 Question 8
Which of the following data structures allows both addition and deletion of items from either end?
 A Double Ended Queue B Queue C Priority Queue D Stack
Data-Structures       Queues-and-Stacks
Question 8 Explanation:
Double Ended Queue: It is abbreviated to deque and it is an abstract data type that generalizes a queue, for which elements can be added to or removed from either the front (head) or back (tail). It is also often called a head-tail linked list
Stack: Stack is an abstract data type that serves as a collection of elements, with two principal operations:
->push, which adds an element to the collection, and
->pop, which removes the most recently added element that was not yet removed.
Both PUSH and POP operations are done from a single end.The order in which elements come off a stack gives rise to its alternative name, LIFO (last in, first out).
Queue: a queue is a collection of entities that are maintained in a sequence and can be modified by the addition of entities at one end of the sequence and removal from the other end of the sequence. It allows addition and deletion of items from fixed different ends.
 Question 9

Considering the relation schemas R (A, B, C, D) and S (C. D. E. F), what will be the degree of the resultant relation of the following Relational Algebra expression. Where “*” represents the”natural join" operation?
 A 3 B 4 C 6 D 5
Database-Management-System       Relational-Algebra
 Question 10
Which of the following will be the encoding of string “aabaabaca" using Huffman's coding?
 A 110111011001 B 110111011111 C 110111111001 D 110011011011
Algorithms       Dynamic-Programming
Question 10 Explanation:
 Question 11
Which of the following is the time complexity of dynamic programming algorithm to compute the Binomial coefficient nCk?
 A Θ(nk) B Θ(kn) C Θ(nk) D Θ(n+k)
Algorithms       Dynamic-Programming
Question 11 Explanation:
Optimal Substructure: The value of C(n, k) can be recursively calculated using following standard formula for Binomial Coefficients.
C(n, k) = C(n-1, k-1) + C(n-1, k)
C(n, 0) = C(n, n) = 1
Time Complexity: O(nk)
Space complexity: O(nk)
 Question 12
Which of the following constraints enforces that the value of the primary key cannot be Null?
 A Key Constraint B Foreign key constraint C Entity integrity constraint D Domain constraint
Database-Management-System       Constraints
Question 12 Explanation:
The entity integrity constraint states that primary key value can't be null. This is because the primary key value is used to identify individual rows in relation and if the primary key has a null value, then we can't identify those rows.
 Question 13

Two concurrent processes P and Q execute the following code.
Process P;
while(True){
W:_____
print(’0’);print(’0’);
X:______
}
Process Q;
while(True){
Y:_____
print(’1’);print(’1’);
Z:______
}
Given S and T are binary semaphore variables, and P() and V() as standard “wait“ and “signal” functions respectively.
What should be the semaphore operations W,X,Y and Z for the output string: 11001100…?
 A W=P(T),X=V(S),Y=P(S),Z=V(T),S=1,T=0 B W=P(T),X=V(S),Y=P(S),Z=V(T),S=T=1 C W=P(T),X=V(T),Y=P(S),Z=V(S),S=T=1 D W=P(T),X=V(T),Y=P(S),Z=V(S),S=1, T=0
Operating-Systems       Semaphores
Question 13 Explanation:
Process P will be executed first and then Process Q can be executed next.
At the process P: W=P(T)
X=V(S)
At the process Q: Y=P(S)
Z=V(T)
Here, S=0, T=1 then the process P executes first and then Q, and both can run on process alternate way start with P.
 Question 14

The output of the following 'C' language code is:

void main(){

int x=1, i , y=2;

for(i=0;i<10;i++)

{

x<<1;

y=x+i;

}

printf("%d.%d”,x.y);

}
 A 10,11 B 1,1 C 10,1 D 1,10
Programming       C-Programming
Question 14 Explanation:
 Question 15
Which of the following protocols is built on client-server architecture and uses separate control and data connections between the client and the server?
 A FTP B SMTP C POP D TELNET
Computer-Networks       Application-Layer-Protocol
Question 15 Explanation:
FTP protocols is built on client-server architecture and uses separate control and data connections between the client and the server
 Question 16
An organization has a Class B network and wishes to form subnets for 60 departments. The subnet mask would be:
 A 255.255.64.0 B 255.255.0.0 C 255.255.252.0 D 255.255.255.0
Question 16 Explanation:
Organization have 60 departments, and to assign 60 subnet we need 6 bits for subnet. In Class B network first two octet are reserved for NID, so we take first 6 bit of third octet for subnets and subnet mask would be 255.255.11111100.00000000 = 255.255.252.0
 Question 17
Which of the following is an NP -complete problem?
 A Turing's Halting problem B CNF-Satisfiability problem C Presburger Arithmetic problem D Number of Hamiltonian circuits in a complete graph of ‘n’ vertices with n>2
Algorithms       NP complete
Question 17 Explanation:
CNF-Satisfiability problem belongs to NP-Complete.
 Question 18

Which of the following is/are FALSE?

I) Operator precedence parser works on ambiguous grammar

II) Top-down parser works on left recursive, unambiguous and deterministic grammar

III) LL(I) is a non-recursive descent parser

IV) CLR(I) is the most powerful parser
 A Only II B I, II, III and IV C ll and IV D I, III and IV
Compiler-Design       Parsers
Question 18 Explanation:
I) TRUE: Operator precedence parser works on ambiguous grammar
II) FALSE: Top-down parser works on left recursive, unambiguous and deterministic grammar
Ill) TRUE: LL(I) is a non-recursive descent parser
IV) TRUE: CLR(I) is the most powerful parser
 Question 19
The data type of the variable "var1 " declared in the following 'C' language statement is: unsigned var1:
 A int B double C char D float
Programming       Data-Type
Question 19 Explanation:
By default unsigned variables will consider integer data type.
 Question 20
Which of the following problem cannot be solved using greedy approach?
 A 0-1 knapsack B Job scheduling C Minimum spanning tree D Huffman code
Algorithms       Greedy-approach
Question 20 Explanation:
Greedy Problems:
1. Job scheduling
2. Minimum spanning tree
3. Huffman code
Dynamic Programming:
1. O/1 knapsack
2. Optimal Binary search tree
3. Matrix chain multiplication
 Question 21
The decimal number 395, when converted into binary occupies______binary digits, whereas when it is represented using BCD codes using BCD codes, occupies_____ binary digits.
 A 12; 9 B 7; 12 C 9; 12 D 12; 7
Digital-Logic-Design       Number-Systems
Question 21 Explanation:
Decimal Number= (395)10 =(110001011)2 =(613)8 = (18B)16
Total 9 digits of binary number required to convert decimal number
 Question 22

Match the following.

List I List II

I)Attenuation P) Loss of energy

II)Shannon capacity Q) Changes in shape of the signal

Ill)Nyquist bit rate R) Noisy channel

IV)Distortion S) Noiseless channel
 A I-P, II-Q,III-R,IV-S B I-P, II-R,III-S,IV-Q C I-S, II-R,III-Q,IV-P D I-Q, II-P,III-S,IV-R
Computer-Networks       Signals
Question 22 Explanation:
Attenuation → Changes in shape of the signal
Shannon capacity → Noisy channel
Nyquist bit rate → Noiseless channel
Distortion → Loss of energy
 Question 23
Which of the following relation schema is always in BCNF?
 A R( A,B,C,D) B R( A,B,C) C R( A,B,C,D,E) D R( A,B)
Database-Management-System       Normalization
Question 23 Explanation:
BCNF Properties:
1. BCNF is the advance version of 3NF. It is stricter than 3NF.
2. A table is in BCNF if every functional dependency X → Y, X is the super key of the table.
3. For BCNF, the table should be in 3NF, and for every FD, LHS is super key.
4. Two (or) Binary tuples are always be in BCNF
 Question 24

Let k2,2 be a complex bipartite graph given below. Which of the following is the total number of paths of length 3 from vertex 1 to vertex 4?

 A 2 B 3 C 4 D 1
Engineering-Mathematics       Graph-Theory
 Question 25

Consider the list of numbers 1, 2, 3, ..., 1000 is stored in a[0..999]. What will be the total number of comparisons to search x = 501 using the following binary_search() function?

int binary_search(int a[ ], int n, int x)

{

int low=0, high=n-1;

while(low <= high)

{

int m = (low + high) /2:

if(x > a[m])

low = m+1;

else if(x < a[m])

high= m-1:

else

return m;

}

return -1;

}
 A 2 B 15 C 17 D 1
Data-Structures       Arrays
 Question 26

Match the following .

 A A-III, B-IV, C-I, D-II B A-II, B-I, C-IV, D-III C A-III, B-I, C-II, D-IV D A-II, B-IV, C-I, D-III
Operating-Systems       Process-Scheduling
Question 26 Explanation:

Moves suspended process to secondary storage → Medium Term Scheduler

Loades the process into memory for execution → Long Term Scheduler

Moves one of the process to running time → Short Term Scheduler

Allocate CPU to a process → Dispatcher
 Question 27

Which of the following is the Postorder traversal of the binary tree whose tree Inorder and Preorder traversals are as follows?

Preorder: KHLOCBJEAGNMFDI
Data-Structures       Trees
Question 27 Explanation:

Preorder: KHLOCBJEAGNMFDI
→ Inorder = Left_child, Root, Right_child
Preorder = Root, Left_child, Right_child
Postorder = Left_child, Right_child, Root

→ Since in Pre-order ‘K’ is at 1st position so ‘K’ is the root of the Binary tree.
→ And in In-order if you will see then OLCHJBE are in its LHS and NGMADFI are in its RHS.

 Question 28
If p is a two-dimensional array having 10 and 20 columns, then which of the following cannot be used to access the element in row 2 and column 5?
 A P[2][5] B *(*(P+2)+5) C *(P[2]+5) D *(P+2+5)
Data-Structures       Arrays
Question 28 Explanation:
Option (A):
P[2][5] represents the element present in column five of row two. So it can be used to access the required given element in question.

Option (B):
*(*(P+2)+5)
*(P+2) → will lead to enter row two.
(*(P+2)+5) will give address of element present at fifth column of row 2.
→ *(*(P+2)+5) will return element present at fifth column of row 2.
Hence option (B) is Correct.

Option (C): *(P[2]+5)
P[2] → will give starting address of row 2
P[2]+5 → will give address of element present at 5th column of row 2.
*(P[2]+5) → will return the element present at 5th column of row 2.
Hence it is correct option.

Option (D): *(P+2+7)
= (P+7)
*(P+7) will return starting address of 7th row.
→ Hence it is not the correct answer.
 Question 29
Given total number of instances of a resource to be 18, three processes (Pl, P2, and P3) and the resource requirement and allocation table are given below.
Which of the following orders of process execution forms a safe (deadlock free)

 A < P1,P2,P3> B < P3,P1,P2> C < P1,P3,P2> D < P2,P1,P3>
Question 29 Explanation:

 Question 30
What will be the "First" and "Follow" of E and F for the following grammar?
E->TE’
E’->+TE’/ε
T->FT’
T’->*FT’/ε
F->id/(E)
 A First(E)={id, (,ε},follow(E)={ε,) }, First(F)={id,),\$}, Follow(F)={*,\$,(} B First(E)={id, ( },follow(E)={\$,) }, First(F)={id,(}, Follow(F)={*,\$,),+} C First(E)={id, (,ε},follow(E)={ε,) }, First(F)={id,)}, Follow(F)={*,\$,(,+ } D First(E)={id, )},follow(E)={\$,) }, First(F)={id,(,\$}, Follow(F)={*,\$,),+}
Compiler-Design       Parsers
Question 30 Explanation:

First (∊) = { id, ( }

Follow (∊) = { \$, ) }

First (F) = { id, ( }

Follow (F) = { *, +, \$, ) }
 Question 31
Which of the following recurrence relation can be solved using Master theorem?
 A T(n) = 64T(n/8) - n B T(n) =T(n/2) + n/(log n) C T(n) =2nT(n/2) + n D T(n) =2T(n/2) + 1
Algorithms       Recurrences
Question 31 Explanation:
Masters theorem is in the form of aT(n/b)+n^k log^p n
FALSE: T(n) = 64T(n/8) - n : In masters theorem will not support negative sign recurrence relation (64T(n/8) - n ).
FALSE: T(n) =T(n/2) + n/(log n) it is violated “non polynomial difference”. But we can write it n(log n) into n^-1 logn but it violates non polynomial difference.
FALSE: In masters theorem “a” value must be greater than 1. But here they given exponential (2^n).
TRUE: T(n) =2T(n/2) + 1
a=2, b=2 , k=0 and p=0
a>b^k
=O(n^ log_b ^a n)
= O(n)
 Question 32

Which of the following statements is TRUE for the grammar given below?

S->(L)/a

L->L.S/S
 A The grammar can be parsed by LR(0) parser only B The grammar can be parsed by LR(0) and SLR(1) parsers C The grammar can be parsed by LL(1) parser only D The grammar can be parsed by LL(1) and LR(0) parsers
Compiler-Design       Parsers
Question 32 Explanation:
→ The given grammar can be parsed by LR(0) grammar because there is no S-R conflict or R-R conflict. → Since the grammar can be parsed by LR(0) parser hence we can say SLR(1) parser can also parse it.
 Question 33
Match the following
 A I-C,II-A,III-B B I-C,II-B,III-A C I-A,II-B,III-C D I-B,II-C,III-A
Question 33 Explanation:
 Question 34

The number of tokens in the following

“C” language statement is:

printf(“The number of tokens are %d”, &tcount);
 A 8 B 9 C 10 D 11
Compiler-Design       Parsers
Question 34 Explanation:

 Question 35
Suppose that we have an ordered file with r = 30000 records stored on a disk with block size B = 1024 bytes. If file records are of fixed size and are unspanned with record length R = 100 bytes, the blocking factor for the file and the number of blocks needed for the file are __________ and _________ respectively
 A 110, 3000 B 10, 3000 C 110, 30000 D 10, 300ly.
Database-Management-System       File-System
Question 35 Explanation:
File size = 30,000 records Block size = 1024 Bytes Record size = 100 Bytes No. of records that can be stored in one Block =1024B/100B =⎣10.24⎦ =10 records (Note: We take floor because file records are given as unspanned.) → No. of Blocks needed for file = 10 records requires ------- 1 Block 1 record requires ------- 1/10 Block 30,000 records ------- 30000/10 Block = 3000 Blocks Hence option B is correct.
 Question 36
if L ={a,b,c} is a language over the set A={a,b,c). Then L3 is:
 A {ababc,abcab, abc2, cabab, cabc, c2ab, c3} B {ababab,ababc, abcab, abc2, cabab, c2ab, c3} C {ababab,ababc, abcab, abc2abab, cabab, cabc, c2ab, c3} D {ababab,ababc, abcab, abc2, cabab, cabc, c2ab, c3}
 Question 37

Consider the following Adjacency matrix corresonding to some weighted Graph ‘G’.

What is the weight of the minimum spanning tree for the graph ‘G’?
 A 11 B 9 C 10 D 8
Algorithms       Greedy-approach
Question 37 Explanation:
 Question 38
Which of the following is used to specify whether the existence of an entity depends on its being related to another entity via the relationship type?
 A Entity integrity constraint B Foreign key constraint C Cardinality ratio D Participation constraint
Database-Management-System       Constraints
 Question 39
Logical data independence is the ability to change________schema without having to change_____ Schema
 A internal; external B conceptual; internal C conceptual; external D internal; conceptual
Database-Management-System       Relational Schema
Question 39 Explanation:
The three-schema approach provides for three types of schemas with schema techniques based on formal language descriptions:
→External schema for user views
→Conceptual schema integrates external schemata
→Internal schema that defines physical storage structures
 Question 40
Which of the following addressing modes is more appropriate for accessing elements of an array?
 A Index mode B Auto increment mode C Displacement mode D Register mode
Question 40 Explanation:
→The address of the operand is obtained by adding to the contents of the general register (called index register) a constant value.
→The number of the index register and the constant value are included in the instruction code.
→Index Mode is used to access an array whose elements are in successive memory locations. The content of the instruction code, represents the starting address of the array and the value of the index register, and the index value of the current element.
→By incrementing or decrementing index register different element of the array can be accessed.
 Question 41
Which of the following ‘C’ language arithmetic expressions has logical error?
 A -13 % -5 + 3; B 4 / (-10 % -2) / 3; C 3 / (-13 % -5) / 3; D -5 % 3 / 13;
Programming       Operator
Question 41 Explanation:
→In the option B, -10%-2 gives remainder of “0” and then expression becomes 4/0/3.
→4/0 gives divide by zero error.
 Question 42

Match the following

 A I-D, II-A, III-B.IV-C B I-C, II-A, III-D.IV-B C I-B, II-A, III-D.IV-C D I-B, II-D, III-A.IV-C
Digital-Logic-Design       Boolean-Expression
Question 42 Explanation:
 Question 43
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
 A Johnson counter is a synchronous counter B Ripple counter is an asynchronous counter. C Asynchronous counters are slower than synchronous counters. D A counter may count up or count down, but cannot count both up and down.
Digital-Logic-Design       Sequential-Circuits
Question 43 Explanation:
→A counter is a device which stores (and sometimes displays) the number of times a particular event or process has occurred, often in relationship to a clock.
→Counters are of two types depending upon clock pulse applied. These counters are: Asynchronous counter and Synchronous counter.
→In Asynchronous Counter { also known as Ripple counter} different flip flops are triggered with different clock, not simultaneously!
→While in Synchronous Counter, all flip flops are triggered with same clock simultaneously ; Synchronous Counter is faster than Asynchronous counter in operation.
Synchronous Counter :- →Synchronous Counter does not produce any decoding errors.
→Synchronous Counter is also called Serial Counter.
→Synchronous Counter will operate in any desired count sequence.
→In Synchronous Counter designing as well implementation are complex due to increasing the number of states.
→Synchronous Counter examples are: Ring counter , Johnson Counter, etc.
Asynchronous Counters :-
→Asynchronous Counter produces decoding error.
→Asynchronous Counter is also called Parallel Counter.
→Asynchronous Counter will operate only in fixed count sequence (UP/DOWN).
→In Asynchronous Counter designing as well as implementation is very easy.
→Asynchronous Counter examples are: Ripple UP counter, Ripple DOWN counter, etc.
 Question 44

Consider the following relation schema R and S along with their tuple sets.

R(A, B) = {, , , , ,, , , ,, , }

S(A) = {a1, a2, a3}

What is the value of TR / S. where "/" represents the Relational Algebra “division" operation?
 A T(B) = {b1, b3} B T(B) = {b1, b2, b4} C T(B) = {b1, b4} D T(B) = {b1, b3, b4}
Database-Management-System       Relational-Algebra
Question 44 Explanation:
 Question 45

Considering the following key using a block of five characters, encryption of the message "NETWORKING" using the Transposition Cipher is:

Plaintext : 5 4 3 2 1

Ciphertext 1 2 3 4 5
 A GNIKROWTEN B OGWNTIEKNR C OWTENGNIKR D NREKTIWNOG
Computer-Networks       Network-Security
Question 45 Explanation:
→A transposition cipher is a method of encryption by which the positions held by units of plaintext (which are commonly characters or groups of characters) are shifted according to a regular system, so that the ciphertext constitutes a permutation of the plaintext. That is, the order of the units is changed (the plaintext is reordered).
→According to given question ,
→Plaintext : 5 4 3 2 1
→Ciphertext 1 2 3 4 5
→Given message "NETWO RKING".
→The message is divided into two equal messages of 5 characters length.
→According to cipher text, The reverse of 5 characters of message is OWTEN GNIKR
 Question 46
If every production is of the form where or of the form , then the grammer is said to be of:
 A Type 3 B Type 1 C Type 0 D Type 2
Theory-of-Computation       Languages-and-Grammars
 Question 47
Assume that source S and destination D are connected through five intermediate routers R1, R2,R3,R4 and R5. Determine how many times each packet has to visit the Network layer and the Data Link layer during transmission from S to D?
 A Network Layer: 7 times, Data Link Layer: 12 times B Network Layer: 5 times, Data Link Layer: 12 times C Network Layer: 12 times, Data Link Layer: 12 times D Network Layer: 7 times, Data Link Layer: 7 times
Computer-Networks       OSI-TCP-layers
Question 47 Explanation:
The packet will visit network layer 7 times(5 times at router and 1 time at source and another time at destination) , once at each node [S, R, R,R,R,R, D] and packet will visit Data Link layer 12 times. One time at S and one time at D, then two times for each intermediate router R[5*2=10] as data link layer is used for link to link communication.
 Question 48
Which of the following statements about the “DELETE” command is FALSE?
 A It removes tuples from a relation (table). B It removes tuples as well as the relation (table). C A missing WHERE clause specifies that all tuples in the relation are to be deleted. D Depending on the number of tuples selected by the condition in the WHERE clause, zero, one or several tuples can be deleted by a single DELETE command.
Database-Management-System       SQL
Question 48 Explanation:
→The DELETE statement is used to delete existing records in a table. →DELETE Syntax DELETE FROM table_name WHERE condition;
 Question 49
Given the Burst Time (BT) of 4 processes P1, P2, P3 and P4 as BT (t1,t2,t3,t4)=(4,8,6,7), smoothening factor()=0.5, and T1=10, what will be the burst time of process P5 for shortest job first scheduling, using the technique of exponential averaging ?
 A 6.875 unit time B 6.25 unit time C 5.785 unit time D 5.5 unit time
Operating-Systems       Process-Scheduling
Question 49 Explanation:
 Question 50
In order to sort list of numbers using radix sort algorithm, we need to get the individual digits of each number ‘n’ of the list. If n is a positive decimal integer, then ith digit , from right , of the number n is:
 A B C D
Algorithms       Sorting
 Question 51
Which of the following statements about “total specialization” constraint is TRUE?
 A Every entity in the subclass must be a member of the superclass. B Every entity in the superclass must be a member of at least one subclass in the specialization. C At least one entity in the superclass must be a member of at least one subclass in the specialization. D Every entity in the superclass must be a member of all subclass in the specialization.
Database-Management-System       Constraints
Question 51 Explanation:
→The total specialization rule demands that every entity in the superclass belong to some subclass. →The partial specialization rule allows an entity to not belong to any of the subclasses
 Question 52
In a B -Tree of order m(m>1). every non -leaf node (except root node) has the number of children between:
 A m/2 and m B |m/2| and m C [m/2] and m D [m/2] and |m/2|
Database-Management-System       B-and-B+-Trees
 Question 53
Which of the following statements about Secure Shell Protocol (SSH) is FALSE?
 A SSH cannot be used for file transfer and e-mail tasks. B SSH provides a secure client/server communication. C SSH runs on top of the TCP/IP layer. D SSH is a network protocol.
Computer-Networks       OSI-TCP-layers
Question 53 Explanation:
→Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network. → Typical applications include remote command-line, login, and remote command execution, but any network service can be secured with SSH.
 Question 54

Which of the following statements is INCORRECT with respect to pointers declared in the following ‘C’ language code?

Void main()

Int a[10], *p, *q;

p=&a[5];

q=&a[7];

}
 A Q-p B P+1 C Q-3 D P+q
Programming       Arrays
Question 54 Explanation:
→Pointers arithmetic operation is not possible. →Here p and q are two pointers , which consists of two addresses , adding addresses is invalid.
 Question 55

Considering the process details given in the following table, what will be the completion order of the processes under the policies FCFS and RR (with CPU quantum of 2 time units)?

 A FCFS: P1, P2, P3 and RR: P1, P2, P3 B FCFS: P3, P2, P1 and RR: P3, P1, P2 C FCFS: P3, P2, P1 and RR: P3, P2, P1 D FCFS: P1, P3, P2 and RR: P1, P2, P3
Operating-Systems       Process-Scheduling
Question 55 Explanation:
 Question 56
Which of the following represents the language over the set A={a,b} consisting of all words beginning with one or more a’s and followed by the same number of b’s?
 A L= {a,ab,ab2,...} B L= {ambn:m,m>0,n>0} C L= {ambm:m>0} D L= {bmabn:m0,n0}
Theory-of-Computation       Languages-and-Grammars
Question 56 Explanation:
→In the option C, ambm:m>0, For a given “m” value always it generates one or more “a” s followed by Same number of “b” s.
→Example :
m=1 ⇒ ab
m=2⇒ aabb and so on.
 Question 57
Which of the following is the every -case time complexity of dynamic programming algorithm for “traversing salesperson” problem to traverse 'n’ cities?
 A Θ(log n2n) B Θ(n2n) C Θ(2n) D Θ(n22n)
Algorithms       Dynamic-Programming
Question 57 Explanation:
→ Time complexity of Brute Force technique is O(n!)
→ Time complexity of Dynamic Programming Technique is O(n2 * 2n)
→ Space complexity of Dynamic Programming Technique is O(n * 2n)
 Question 58
Which of the following statements related to Cache memory organization is FALSE?
 A In "write through" approach. main memory content is always invalid. B In "write back" approach, updates are made only in the cache and it minimizes memory writes. C Least Recently Used (LRU) replacement algorithm can be used in associative and set associative mappings. D For direct mapping, no replacement algorithm is needed.
Computer-Organization       Cache
Question 58 Explanation:
→Write through is a storage method in which data is written into the cache and the corresponding main memory location at the same time.
→The cached data allows for fast retrieval on demand, while the same data in main memory ensures that nothing will get lost if a crash, power failure, or other system disruption occurs.
 Question 59
If D={R1,R2} is a decomposition of R, and F is the set of functional dependencies on R, then which of the following ensures that the decomposition D is lossless (nonadditive)?
 A ((R1∩ R2) →(R1-R2)) ∈ F+ B ((R1 ∩R2) → (R1 - R2)) ∉ F+ C ((R1 ∪ R2) →(R1 - R2)) ∈ F+ D ((R1∩R2) →R1 ) ∈ F+
Database-Management-System       Functional-Dependency
Question 59 Explanation:
 Question 60
The 9’s compliment of the decimal number 139452 is:
 A 971658 B 971659 C 860547 D 860548
Database-Management-System       Functional-Dependency
Question 60 Explanation:
→To obtain the 9’s complement of any number we have to subtract the number with (10n – 1) where n = number of digits in the number, or in a simpler manner we have to divide each digit of the given decimal number with 9
→Subtract each and every digit of given number by digit “9”.
999999
139452
________
860547
 Question 61
A flip-flop has a 20-nano second delay from the time its CP input goes from 1 to 0 to the time uses these flip-flops?
 A 20 ns B 320 ns C 36 ns D 16 ns
Digital-Logic-Design       Sequential-Circuits
Question 61 Explanation:
Delay for one flip-flop = 20ns Since in question they are asking about the number of flip-flops(i.e.n>1). So the delay for n- flip flops will be a multiple of 20 and “n” will be greater than 1. If you will see the given options then option (B) is correct because 320 is a multiple of 20(i.e. 20* 16 = 320) and n =16(i.e. n>1)
 Question 62
Let L be the language on A={a,b,c} which consists of all words of the form w=ar bs ct where r,s,t>0. Which of the following is the valid regular expression ‘r’ such that L=L(r)?
 A r= a*b*c B r= aa*bb*c C r= aa*b*cc D r= aa*bb*cc*
Theory-of-Computation       Regular-Expression
Question 62 Explanation:
→From the given question, w=ar bs ct where r,s,t>0 which means that the minimum value is r=s=t=1,
→Substitute in r=s=t=1 in w then L= abc
→So option D gives the regular expression abc
 Question 63

Match the following.

 A I-Q, II-S, III-R, IV-P B I-S, II-Q, III-P, IV-R C I-S, II-Q, III-R, IV-P D I-Q, II-S, III-P, IV-R
Algorithms       Dynamic-Greedy-Programming
 Question 64

The listing of nodes after applying the preorder traversal over the following binary tree is:

 A A,B,D,H,I,E,J,K,C,F,G,L B H,D,I,B,J,E,K,A,L,F,C,G C H,I,D,J,K,E,B,L,F,G,C,A D A,B,D,H,I,E,J,K,C,F,L,G
Data-Structures       Binary-Trees
Question 64 Explanation:
In the Pre-order traversal , the nodes are traversed in the order “root-left-right”.
So option-D is correct.
 Question 65

Consider the following relation schema R along with the tuples.

Employee(name, salary) ={< e1, 10000>,< e2, 5000>,< e3, 2500>, < e4, 7500>,< e5, 8900>,< e6, 9800>}

What is the output of following SQL query?

SELECT name , MAX( salary) FROM Employee WHERE salary<( SELECT MAX (salary) FROM Employee;
 A < e3, 2500> B < e5, 8900> C < e6, 9800> D < e1, 10000>
Database-Management-System       SQL
Question 65 Explanation:
The above query is to find the employee whose salary is the second highest
 Question 66
Maximum number of edges in a simple graph with ‘n’ vertices and ‘k’ components is:
 A [(n-2)(n-1)/2]+1 B [(n-k)(n-k+1)]/2 C n2 D [(n)(n-1)]/2
Engineering-Mathematics       Graph-Theory
Question 66 Explanation:
A simple graph with n vertices and k components can have at most have (n-k)(n-k+1)/2 edges.
 Question 67
The number of elements in a one-dimensional array with lowest and highest index values as -1024 and 1024 is:
 A 2048 B 0 C 1024 D 2049
Programming       Arrays
Question 67 Explanation:
→The number of elements in [-n:n] is n+n+1=2n+1
→Example:[-2:2] consists of -2,-1,0,1,2 indexes.
 Question 68
Total number of spanning tree of a complete graph of 4 vertices k4 is:
 A 15 B 16 C 3 D 17
Data-Structures       Arrays
Question 68 Explanation:
The number of spanning trees of Kn is nn-2= n4-2=n2=42=16
 Question 69
Which of the following relationships holds for non-random-access memory, where Tn = average time to read or write n bits, Ta= average access time, n=number of bits and r=transfer rate in bits per second?
 A Ta=Tn+ n/r B Tn=Ta+ n/r C Ta=Tn+ r/n D Tn=Ta+ r/n
Question 69 Explanation:
 Question 70

Match the following.

 A I-B,II-C,III-D,IV-A B I-C,II-B,III-D,IV-A C I-A,II-D,III-B,IV-C D I-B,II-A,III-D,IV-C
Computer-Organization       RAID
Question 70 Explanation:
The standard RAID levels comprise a basic set of RAID (redundant array of independent disks) configurations that employ the techniques of striping, mirroring, or parity to create large reliable data stores from multiple general-purpose computer hard disk drives (HDDs). The most common types are RAID 0 (striping), RAID 1 (mirroring) and its variants, RAID 5 (distributed parity), and RAID 6 (dual parity).
RAID levels and their associated data formats are standardized by the Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA) in the Common RAID Disk Drive Format (DDF) standard
 Question 71

Consider an information exchange scenario where Anthony is the sender and Bond is the intended recipient of the data.

Match the following appropriately.

 A I-C, II-B, III-D, IV-A B I-C, II-D, III-A, IV-B C I-C, II-D, III-B, IV-A D I-A, II-D, III-B, IV-C
Computer-Networks       Network-Security
Question 71 Explanation:
Message Authentication: Bond needs to be sure of anthony’s identity and that an imposter has not sent the message.
Message confidentiality: The transmitted message must make sense to only bond and to all others it must be garbage.
Message Integrity: The message must arrive at the bond’s side exactly as it was sent. Message Non Repudiation: Anthony must not be able to deny sending a message that he or she in fact, did send
Options C is correct.
 Question 72
If the address of the operand is embedded in the instruction code itself, then the addressing mode is termed as:
 A Register mode B Direct mode C Displacement mode D Immediate mode
Question 72 Explanation:
In direct mode, the effective address of operand is present in the instruction itself.
Single memory reference to access data.
 Question 73

Consider the process details given in the following table.

A new pre-emptive scheduling algorithm is proposed, i.e., the Longest Remaining Time Next (LRTN), wherein ties are broken by giving priority to the process with the highest priority
.
Calculate the following.

i. Turnaround time for Process P2

ii. Response time for Process P3
 A (i)20, (ii)6 B (i)19, (ii)3 C (i)19, (ii)8 D (i)20, (ii)7
Operating-Systems       Process-Scheduling
Question 73 Explanation:
 Question 74
Under normal circumstances, the cardinality ratio of the binary relationship “Write” relating “Author” and “Book” entities is:
 A 1 : N B N : 1 C 1 : 1 D M : N
Database-Management-System       ER-Model
Question 74 Explanation:
The relationship WRITES shows that one author can write many books and one book can be written by many authors. So the cardinality ratio is M:N
 Question 75
If T is a binary tree with N nodes, then the number of levels is at least:
 A |log2 (N+1) B N-1 C N D [log2 (N+1)]
Data-Structures       Binary-Trees
Question 75 Explanation:
 Question 76
Which of the following declares ‘pf’ as a pointer to a function, which returns an integer quantity and requires two integer arguments ?
 A int *pf(int, int); B int (*pf)(int, int); C (int *) pf(int, int); D int ( int *pf(int, int));
Programming       Pointers
Question 76 Explanation:
int (*pf)(int, int) , Here ‘pf’ declares as a pointer to a function, which returns an integer quantity and requires two integer arguments
 Question 77

The output of the following ‘c’ language code is :

Void main(){

Char arr[10];

arr=”world”;

printf(“%s”, arr);
 A world B World5 C World10 D L-value required error
Programming       C-Programming
Question 77 Explanation:
→Here “arr” is starting address of the array.
→We can’t store array values by using the syntax , arr=”world”.
→The above syntax will give error.
 Question 78
Interrupt generated due to which of the following operations does not belong to program-related interrupt category?
 A Division by zero B Attempt to execute an illegal machine instruction C Memory parity error D Reference outside a user’s allowed memory space
Computer-Organization       Interruption
Question 78 Explanation:
Memory parity errors can be caused by failing hardware or outside elements disrupting how computer memory functions.
Fixing parity errors involves removing the outside cause or failing hardware.
A memory parity error means that one or more stored data values carries a different value when it's recalled than when it was stored.
According to Cisco, parity errors are a type of data corruption.
Parity errors offset the charge value and can bring back invalid or incorrect commands for the computer.
 Question 79
The counter implemented by the following circuit diagram where inputs to the NAND gate are the outputs of the B and C flip-flops, is:
 A MOD-7 Counter B MOD-6 Counter C MOD-8 Counter D MOD-4 Counter
Digital-Logic-Design       Sequential-Circuits
Question 79 Explanation:
→ In question, CLR is given as Input.
→ CLR is asynchronous input pin.
→ If CLR=1, all flip-flop outputs are reset to ‘0’.

→ When counter will start counting, it will count from 0 to 5 and at 6th clock, flip-flop output are cleared.
→ Hence given counter is MOD6 counter.
 Question 80

What will be the minimum Hamming distance for the following coding scheme?

 A 1 B 2 C 3 D 4
Digital-Logic-Design       Number-Systems
Question 80 Explanation:
The minimum Hamming distance is the smallest Hamming distance between all possible pairs.
The Hamming distance can easily be found if we apply the XOR operation on the two words and count the number of 1s in the result. Note that the Hamming distance is a value greater than zero
The minimum hamming distance is between the words 10 and 11
10101 exor 11100 = 01001 which is “2”.
 Question 81
In clustering index, the number of index entries is same as the number of:
 A Attributes in data file B Records in data file C Blocks in data file D Distinct index field values
Database-Management-System       File-System
Question 81 Explanation:
An Index is a key built from one or more columns in the database that speeds up fetching rows from the table or view.
Cluster index is a type of index which sorts the data rows in the table on their key values. In the Database, there is only one clustered index per table.
A clustered index defines the order in which data is stored in the table which can be sorted in only one way. So, there can be an only a single clustered index for every table.
In an RDBMS, usually, the primary key allows you to create a clustered index based on that specific column.
 Question 82
Which of the following operators can be used if a portion of a given bit patterns needs to be copied to a new word, while the remainder of the new word is filled with 0’s?
 A Logical AND B Bitwise AND C Bitwise OR D Bitwise XOR
Programming       Operator
Question 82 Explanation:
Bitwise AND is a binary operator that operates on two equal-length bit patterns. If both bits in the compared position of the bit patterns are 1, the bit in the resulting bit pattern is 1, otherwise 0.
Bitwise OR is also a binary operator that operates on two equal-length bit patterns, similar to bitwise AND. If both bits in the compared position of the bit patterns are 0, the bit in the resulting bit pattern is 0, otherwise 1.
Bitwise XOR also takes two equal-length bit patterns. If both bits in the compared position of the bit patterns are 0 or 1, the bit in the resulting bit pattern is 0, otherwise 1.
 Question 83
Let each process Pi, i= 1 to 7 executes the following code. Repeat P(mutex); CS V(mutex); Forever The process P8 executes the following code: Repeat V(mutex); CS V(mutex); Forever What is the maximum number of processes that can be present in the critical section at any point of time? Given that the initial value of binary semaphore variable “mutex” is 1.
 A 7 B 8 C 1 D 10
Operating-Systems       Process-Synchronization
 Question 84
Which of the following is the best-case time complexity of Floyd’s algorithm for finding shortest paths in a graph with ‘n’ vertices?
 A Θ(n2) B Θ(1) C Θ(n) D Θ(n3)
Algorithms       Dynamic-Programming
Question 84 Explanation:
Floyd–Warshall's Algorithm is used to find the shortest paths between all pairs of vertices in a graph, where each edge in the graph has a weight which is positive or negative. The biggest advantage of using this algorithm is that all the shortest distances between any 2 vertices could be calculated in O(V3), where V is the number of vertices in a graph.
 Question 85

State TRUE or FALSE for the following.

(i) A sine wave with a phase of 180 starts at time 0 with a zero amplitude. The amplitude is decreasing

(ii) If a signal changes instantaneously, its frequency is zero.

(iii) In bipolar encoding, we use three voltage levels: positive, negative and zero.

(iv) Infrared signals can be used for short can be used for short-range communication in a closed area using ground propagation.
 A (i) TRUE, (ii) FALSE, (iii) TRUE, (iv) FALSE B (i) TRUE, (ii) TRUE, (iii) TRUE, (iv) FALSE C (i) FALSE, (ii) TRUE, (iii) FALSE, (iv) FALSE D (i) TRUE, (ii) TRUE, (iii) FALSE, (iv) FALSE
 Question 86
Consider the characters and their frequency counts given in the following table.

Using the Huffman coding technique, which of the following is the valid code for character ‘c’?
 A 11111 B 1110 C 11110 D 110
Algorithms       Greedy-approach
Question 86 Explanation:

 Question 87

A block of addresses is granted to a small organization, If one of the addresses is 210.32.64.79/26, then what will be the values of the following?

 A (i) 210.32.64.64, (ii) 210.32.64.127, (iii)64 B (i) 210.32.64.64, (ii) 210.32.64.255, (iii)32 C (i) 210.32.64.79, (ii) 210.32.64.255, (iii)64 D (i) 210.32.64.64, (ii) 210.32.64.79, (iii)128
Question 87 Explanation:
→Classless addressing treats the IP address as a 32 bit stream of ones and zeroes, where the boundary between network and host portions can fall anywhere between bit 0 and bit 31.Classless addressing system is also known as CIDR(Classless Inter-Domain Routing).
→The first address in the block can be found by setting the rightmost 32 − n bits to 0s.
→The last address in the block can be found by setting the rightmost 32 − n bits to 1s.
→The number of addresses in the block can be found by using the formula 232−n.
→Here “n” is 26.
 Question 88
A_____takes a directed ______ graph G and produce a linear ordering of all its vertices such that for every directed edge in G, the vertex v comes before the vertex w in the ordering.
 A Breadth first search; acyclic B Topological sort; acyclic C Breadth first search; cyclic D Topological sort; cyclic
Data-Structures       Graphs-and-Tree
Question 88 Explanation:
Topological sorting of vertices of a Directed Acyclic Graph is an ordering of the vertices V1,v2,...vn in such a way, that if there is an edge directed towards vertex vj from vertex vi , then vi comes before vj
 Question 89

Match the following.

 A I-S, II-R, III-P, IV-Q B I-S, II-Q, III-P, IV-R C I-S, II-P, III-Q, IV-R D I-P, II-Q, III-R, IV-S
Data-Structures       Trees
Question 89 Explanation:
→Array,Stack and Queue are examples of linear data structure .
→Tree and Graph are examples of non-linear data structure.
→A binary heap is a complete binary tree; that is, all levels of the tree, except possibly the last one (deepest) are fully filled, and, if the last level of the tree is not complete, the nodes of that level are filled from left to right.
 Question 90

Which of the following statements is TRUE for the function prototype declaration given below?

Int *(*P)(char *Q[]);
 A P is a function that accepts an argument which is a character array and returns a pointer to an integer quantity. B P is a function that accepts an argument which is a pointer to a character array and returns a pointer to an integer quantity. C P is a pointer to a function that accepts an argument which is an array of character pointers, and returns a pointer to an integer quantity. D P is a pointer to function that accepts an argument which is a character array and returns a pointer to an integer quantity .
Programming       Pointers
Question 90 Explanation:
P is a pointer to a function that accepts an argument which is an array of character pointers, and returns a pointer to an integer quantity.
 Question 91

Consider the following segment of codes related to process creation. How many times the message “ child process created” will be printed?

#include

Void main(){

fork();fork();fork();

printf(“child process created”);

}
 A 9 B 7 C 8 D 3
Operating-Systems       System-Calls
Question 91 Explanation:
System call fork() is used to create processes. It takes no arguments and returns a process ID. The purpose of fork() is to create a new process, which becomes the child process of the caller. After a new child process is created, both processes will execute the next instruction following the fork() system call.
Number process created are 2number of fork() calls= 23=8
 Question 92

What is the output when the following segment of ‘c’ code is executed?

Void main (){

Float a = 123.456

printf(“%7.2f, %7.3f, %12e, a, a, a);

}
 A 123.450, 123.4560, 1.234560e+02 B 123.46, 123.456, 1.234560e+02 C 123.456000, 123.456, 0.1234560e+03 D 123.45, 123.4560, 1.234560e+02
Programming       C-Programming
Question 92 Explanation:
→The conversion specifier %7.2f tells printf to display the value as a 7-character wide field with 2 digits following the decimal point.
→The %e format uses scientific notation, i.e. one digit before the decimal separator and an exponent for scaling
 Question 93
Which of the following is a seven-bit code?
 A Biquinary code B BCD code C 2421 code D Excess-3 code
Digital-Logic-Design       Number-Systems
Question 93 Explanation:
Bi-quinary coded decimal is a numeral encoding scheme used in many abacuses and in some early computers, including the Colossus.
The term bi-quinary indicates that the code comprises both a two-state (bi) and a five-state (quinary) component.
 Question 94
Which of the following attributes can be considered as composite, single-valued and key attribute?
 A Age B Date of birth C Gender D Enrollment number
Database-Management-System       Relational Schema
Question 94 Explanation:
Types of Attributes
Simple attribute − Simple attributes are atomic values, which cannot be divided further. For example, a student's phone number is an atomic value of 10 digits.
Composite attribute − Composite attributes are made of more than one simple attribute. For example, a student's complete name may have first_name and last_name.
Derived attribute − Derived attributes are the attributes that do not exist in the physical database, but their values are derived from other attributes present in the database. For example, average_salary in a department should not be saved directly in the database, instead it can be derived. For another example, age can be derived from data_of_birth.
Single-value attribute − Single-value attributes contain single value. For example − Social_Security_Number.
Multi-value attribute − Multi-value attributes may contain more than one values. For example, a person can have more than one phone number, email_address, etc.
Key is an attribute or collection of attributes that uniquely identifies an entity among entity set.
 Question 95

Which of the following statements about the following binary tree is FALSE

 A It is a binary serach tree B It is a complete binary tree C Nodes ‘J’ and ‘K’ are siblings D Node ‘B’ is the ancestor of node ‘J’
Data-Structures       Binary-Trees
Question 95 Explanation:
A binary search tree is a rooted binary tree, whose internal nodes each store a key (and optionally, an associated value) and each have two distinguished sub-trees, commonly denoted left and right.
The tree additionally satisfies the binary search property, which states that the key in each node must be greater than or equal to any key stored in the left sub-tree, and less than or equal to any key stored in the right sub-tree.
Only option A is false
 Question 96
The default storage class for functions in ‘C’ language is:
 A Static B Register C Extern D Auto
Programming       Storage-Classes
Question 96 Explanation:
The default storage class for variable is auto and function is extern.
We can use functions in multiple files with the help of header files.
 Question 97
If T is a binary tree with number of levels as L, then the number of leaf nodes in the binary tree is at most :
 A 2L+1 B 2L C 2L D 2L-1
Data-Structures       Binary-Trees
Question 97 Explanation:
Let T be a binary tree with L levels. Then the number of leaves is at most 2L-1.
 Question 98
If a connected graph G does not contain any vertex whose removal disconnects the rest of the graph, then G is called:
 A Biconnected graph B Separable graph C Forest D Diagraph
Engineering-Mathematics       Graph-Theory
Question 98 Explanation:
A biconnected graph is a connected and "nonseparable" graph, meaning that if any one vertex were to be removed, the graph will remain connected. Therefore a biconnected graph has no articulation vertices.
 Question 99
Consider a cache memory organization with m lines in which the cache is divided into v sets, each of which consists of k lines. The set associative mapping technique reduces to direct mapping when:
 A v=m and k=m B v=1 and k=m C v=m and k=1 D v=1 and k=1
Computer-Organization       Cache
Question 99 Explanation:
 Question 100
Consider a memory unit of size 96k x 16, where first component represents the total number of words and that the second component represents the number of bits per word. What will be the number if address lines and input-output data lines?
 A 16 address lines, 7 data lines B 7 address lines, 16 data lines C 17 address lines, 16 data lines D 16 address lines, 17 data lines
Digital-Logic-Design       Combinational-Circuit
Question 100 Explanation:
Given memory unit is 96K x 16
96 is greater than 64 and less than 128 ,So we need to consider 128.
96= 2x2x2x2x2x3 which is equivalent to 2 ^ 7
96K which is 2^7 x 2^10 =2^17