## TNPSC-2012-Polytechnic-CS

 Question 1
Which of the following computers is least powerful?
 A Mini B Micro C Mainframe D Super
Question 1 Explanation:
Micro computer is the least powerful computer and super computer is the most powerful computer.
 Question 2
The technique which repeatedly uses the same block of internal storage during different stages of problem is called
 A Overlay B Overlapping C Swapping D Reuse
Operating-Systems       Memory-Management
Question 2 Explanation:
In a general computing sense, overlaying means "the process of transferring a block of program code or other data into main memory, replacing what is already stored". Overlaying is a programming method that allows programs to be larger than the computer's main memory.
 Question 3
The number of instructions needed to add n numbers and store the result in memory using only one address instruction is
 A n B n+1 C n-1 D independent of n
Computer-Organization       Machine-Instructions
Question 3 Explanation:
At first instruction we will load the first no. in accumulator and then from second instruction we will add remaining n-1 no. using accumulator. Till now n instruction is used. And finally we will use one more instruction to store the result back to memory. So in total n+1 instruction is required.
 Question 4
The most relevant addressing mode to write position independent code is
 A Direct mode B Indirect mode C Relative mode D Indexed mode
Question 4 Explanation:
Relative mode is the most relevant addressing mode to write position independent code.
Indexed mode is for arrays and structure.
Indirect mode is used for pointers.
 Question 5
The CPU of a computer takes instruction from the memory and executes them. This process is called
 A Load cycle B Time sequences C Fetch-execute cycle D Clock cycle
Computer-Organization       Machine-Instructions
Question 5 Explanation:
The process in which a CPU of a computer takes instruction from memory and executes them is called fetch-execute cycle.
 Question 6
A five figure number is formed by the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 without repetition. Then probability that the number formed is divisible by 4 in
 A 3/15 B 5/16 C 7/16 D 9/16
Engineering-Mathematics       Probability
 Question 7
If A and B be sets with cardinalities m and n respectively, then number of one-one mappings (injections) from A to B, when m < n, is
 A mn B nPm C nCm D None of these
Engineering-Mathematics       Relations-and-Functions
Question 7 Explanation:
The formula for above given question is nPm.
 Question 8
The set of all nth roots of unity under multiplication of complex numbers form a/an
 A Semi-group with identity B Communicative semi groups with identity C Group D Abelian group
Engineering-Mathematics       Set-Theory
Question 8 Explanation:
More generally, if C is a group and z∈C with zn = 1, where 1 is the identity of C, then G = {1,z,z2,...,zn-1} is a group (actually, a subgroup of C).
Indeed:
• Closure: zjzk = zj+k = zr ∈ G, where r = (j+k) mod n.
• Associativity: comes from C.
• Identity: 1 ∈ G by definition, and 1 is the identity of C.
• Inverse: zjzn-j = 1.
• Commutativity: zjzk = zj+k = zk+j = zkzj.
 Question 9
How many 10 digit numbers can be written by using the digits 1 and 2?
 A 10 C1 + 9 C2 B 210 C 10 C2 D 10 1
Engineering-Mathematics       Combinatorics
Question 9 Explanation:
For each digit we have two choices ‘1 or 2’. So no. of possible 10 digits nos.
2*2*2*2*2*2*2*2*2*2 = 210
 Question 10
T is a graph with n vertices. T is connected and has exactly n – 1 edges. Then
 A T is a tree B T contains no cycles C Every pair of vertices in T is connected by exactly one path D Addition of a new edge will create a cycle
Engineering-Mathematics       Graph-Theory
Question 10 Explanation:
Any graph with n vertices and n-1 edges which is connected will definitely be a tree.
 Question 11
Eigenvectors of a real symmetric matrix corresponding to different eigenvalues are
 A Orthogonal B Singular C Non-singular D None of these
Engineering-Mathematics       Linear-Algebra
Question 11 Explanation:
Eigen-vectors of a real symmetric matrix corresponding to different eigenvalues are orthogonal to each other.
 Question 12
If L1 and L2 are context free language and R is a regular set. Which one of the languages below is not necessarily a context free language?
 A L1L2 B L1∩L2 C L1∪R D L1∪L2
Theory-of-Computation       Regular-Language
Question 12 Explanation:
Context free language is not closed under intersection. Hence B is the correct option.
 Question 13
CSG can be recognized by
 A push-down automata B 2 way linear bounded automaton C finite state automata D none of these
Theory-of-Computation       Context-Sensitive-Grammar
Question 13 Explanation:
Context sensitive grammar can be recognized by linear bounded automata.
 Question 14
Consider the following grammar:
```S → Ax |By
A → By|Cw
B → x|Bw
C → y ```
Which of the regular expressions describes the same set of strings as the grammar?
 A xw+y+xw*yx+ywx B xwy+xw*xy*ywx C xw*y+xw*yx+ywx D xwxy+xww*yywx
Theory-of-Computation       Regular-Expression
Question 14 Explanation:
Option A do not contain xy which is generated by the grammar.
Option B do not contain xy which is generated by the grammar.
Option C do not contain xy which is generated by the grammar.
 Question 15
Recursively enumerable languages are not closed under
 A Union B Intersection C Complementation D Concatenation
Theory-of-Computation       Recursive-and-Recursively-Enumerable-Language
Question 15 Explanation:
Recursively enumerable language are not closed under complementation.
 Question 16
Turing machine is more powerful than FMs because
 A Tape movement is confined to one direction B It has no finite state C It has the capability to remember arbitrarily long sequences of input symbols D None of these
Theory-of-Computation       Turing-machines
Question 16 Explanation:
Turing machines is more powerful than finite machines because it has the capability to remember arbitrarily long sequences of input symbols.
 Question 17
Which of the following statements is wrong?
 A The language accepted by finite automata is the languages denoted by regular expressions. B For every DFA there is a regular expression denoting its language C For a regular expression r, there does not exist any NFA with transit that accepts L(r) D None of these
Theory-of-Computation       Finite-Automata
Question 17 Explanation:
NFA, DFA and regular expression are equal in power. So for every regular expression there exists DFA and NFA.
 Question 18
Can a DFA simulate NFA?
 A No B Yes C Sometimes D Depends of NFA
Theory-of-Computation       Finite-Automata
Question 18 Explanation:
DFA has equal power as NFA.
 Question 19
Let a and b be the regular expressions, then (a*∪b*)* is not equivalent to
 A (a∪b)* B (b*∪a*)* C (b∪a)* D (a∪b)
Theory-of-Computation       Regular-Expression
Question 19 Explanation:
The given regular expression is not equal to option D.
 Question 20
FDDI is a
 A Ring network B Star network C Mesh network D Bus based network
Computer-Networks       Topologies
Question 20 Explanation:
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) uses fiber-optic cable and is wired in a ring topology and Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) uses token passing as its media-access method and can operate at high speeds.
 Question 21
Which one of the following is not a class of LAN?
 A Broadband B CSMA/CD C Token bus D Token ring
Computer-Networks       LAN
Question 21 Explanation:
Broadband is not a class of LAN.
 Question 22
Which of the following TCP/IP protocols is used for file transfer with minimal capability and minimal overhead?
 A RARP B FTP C TFTP D TELNET
Computer-Networks       TCP/IP
Question 22 Explanation:
Among the given options FTP and TFTP is used to transfer files. Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is an Internet software utility for transferring files that is simpler to use than the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) but less capable. It is used where user authentication and directory visibility are not required.
 Question 23
ALOHA is used for
 A Channel allocation problem B Data transfer C Buffering D All of these
Computer-Networks       Access-Control-Methods
Question 23 Explanation:
Aloha is used to get access of the link because it is a access control method or we can also say that it is a channel allocation problem.
 Question 24
Error detection at the data link level is achieved by
 A Bit stuffing B Cyclic redundancy codes C Hamming D Equalization
Computer-Networks       CRC
Question 24 Explanation:
Error detection at the data link layer is achieved by CRC method.
 Question 25
Which topology requires a central controller or hub?
 A Mesh B Star C Bus D Ring
Computer-Networks       Topologies
Question 25 Explanation:
A star topology is a topology for a Local Area Network (LAN) in which all nodes are individually connected to a central connection point, like a hub or a switch. A star takes more cable than e.g. a bus, but the benefit is that if a cable fails, only one node will be brought down.
 Question 26
Ethernet LAN uses
 A Polar encoding B Differential Manchester encoding C Manchester encoding D NRZ
Computer-Networks       Ethernet
Question 26 Explanation:
Ethernet LAN uses manchester encoding.
 Question 27
The parity of the binary number 100110011 is
 A Even B Odd C 4 D 5
Computer-Networks       Error-Detection-and-correction
Question 27 Explanation:
The parity of a binary no. is said to be odd if it contains odd no. of 1’s and the parity of a binary no. is said to be even if it contains even no. of 1’s.
Since the given binary no. contains odd no. of 1’s so the parity is odd.
 Question 28
A switching function can also be written as
 A Σ(1, 3, 5, 7, 9) B Σ(3, 5, 7, 9, 11) C Σ(3, 5, 9, 11, 13) D Σ(5, 7, 9,11,13)
Digital-Logic-Design       Boolean-Function
Question 28 Explanation:
 Question 29
The clock signals are used in sequential logic circuits to
 A Tell the time of the day B Tell how much time has elapsed since the system was turned on C Carry serial data signals D Synchronize events in various parts of system
Digital-Logic-Design       Sequential-Circuits
Question 29 Explanation:
The clock signals are used in sequential logic circuit for synchronization.
 Question 30
For a memory system, the cycle time is
 A Same as the access time B Longer than the access time C Shorter than the access time D Sub-multiple of the access time
Question 30 Explanation:
For a memory system, the cycle time is Longer than the access time. Cycle time is the time, usually measured in nanosecond s, between the start of one random access memory ( RAM ) access to the time when the next access can be started. Access time is sometimes used as a synonym.
 Question 31
For which of the following flip-flops, the output is clearly defined for all combinations of two inputs?
 A Q-type flip-flop B R-S flip-flop C J-K flip-flop D T flip-flop
Digital-Logic-Design       Sequential-Circuits
Question 31 Explanation:
or R-S flip flop the output is not defined for input R=1,S=1. But for J-K flip flop output is defined for all combinations of two inputs.
Note that T flip-flop is 1 input flip flop and not two input flip flop.
 Question 32
Functional dependencies are a generalization of
 A Key dependencies B Relation dependencies C Database dependencies D None of these
Database-Management-System       Functional-Dependency
Question 32 Explanation:
A functional dependency is a generalization of the notion of a key. It requires the value for a certain set of attributes determines uniquely the value for another set of attributes.
 Question 33
ER modeling technique is a
 A top-down approach B bottom-up approach C left-right approach D none of these
Database-Management-System       ER-Model
Question 33 Explanation:
1. ER Modeling (Top down Approach)
2. Normalization (Bottom Up approach)
 Question 34
Let R = (A, B, C, D, E, F) be a relation schema with the following dependencies:
`C → F,E → A, EC → D, A → B `
Which of the following is a key for R?
 A CD B EC C AE D AC
Database-Management-System       Functional-Dependency
Question 34 Explanation:
Let's find closure of each options,
(CD)+ = CDF X
(EC)+ = ECFDAB ✓
(AE)+ = AEB X
(AC)+ = ACBF X
 Question 35
Any binary relation is in
 A 1 NF B 2 NF C 3 NF D BCNF
Database-Management-System       Normalization
Question 35 Explanation:
Every binary relation(relation with two attributes ) is always in BCNF.
Let there be relation R(C,D).
Possible functional dependencies are,
C->D (Candidate key C)
or
D->C (Candidate key is D)
or
CD->CD (Candidate key is CD)
No violation is there in any of the above three cases for BCNF.
 Question 36
The database environment has all of the following components except
 A Users B Separate files C Database D Database administration
Database-Management-System       Databases
Question 36 Explanation:
The database environment has all of the following components except separate files.
 Question 37
Which of the following is not a characteristic of a relational database model?
 A Tables B Treelike structure C Complex logical relationships D Records
Database-Management-System       Database-models
Question 37 Explanation:
Relational database model do not have tree like structure.
 Question 38
Given two union compatible R1(A,B) and R2(C, D). What is the result of the operations R1 A = C AB = DR2?
 A R1∪R2 B R1×R2 C R1-R2 D R1∩R2
Database-Management-System       Relational-Algebra
Question 38 Explanation:
The operations will give the result whose values of both the attributes of R1 and R2 are equal.Which means the operation is nothing but R1∩R2.
 Question 39
What is the output of the following C program?
```	{ int a|5| = {2,3};
Printf (“/n%d%d%d”, a[2], a[3], a[4]) ;
} ```
 A Garbage values B 2 3 3 C 3 2 2 D 0 0 0
Programming       Arrays
Question 39 Explanation:
First two elements of array will get the value 2 and 3 and the remaining 3 elements of the array will get the value 0 by default.
 Question 40
In C language, x - = y + 1; means
 A x=x-y+1 B x=-x-y-1 C x=-x+y+1 D x=x-y-1
Programming       Operator
Question 40 Explanation:
In general, a-=b means a=a-b. So from this we can conclude that correct option is A.
 Question 41
If x is an array of integer, then the value of &x [t] is same as
 A &x[t-1] + size of (int) B x + size of (int)*t C x+t D x=5
Programming       Arrays
 Question 42
How many values can be held by an array A (-1 … m, 1, … m)?
 A m B m2 C m(m+1) D m(m+2)
Data-Structures       Arrays
Question 42 Explanation:
Index of rows is from -1 to m, so no. of rows is m+2. And index of column is from 1 to m,so no. of rows is m.
Hence no. of values that can be held in array A is m*(m+2).
 Question 43
What is true for the complete bipartite graphs k (3, 3) and k (2, 4) ?
 A Both are planar B Neither is planar C Both are isomorphic D None of these
Engineering-Mathematics       Graph-Theory
Question 43 Explanation:
The graph k(1,n) is planar for all n.
The graph k(2,n) is planar for all n.
Every other case deals with k(n,m) where n,m>=3, but then this graph must have k(3,3) as a subgraph and it is non-planar by kuratowski’s theorem.
Hence K(3,3) is not planar where as k(2,4) is planar.
 Question 44
Linked lists are not suitable for
 A Insertion B Binary search C Radix sort D Polynomial manipulation
Question 44 Explanation:
Linked lists are not suitable for binary search because we cant directly jump to the required node while searching.
 Question 45
The postfix expression for the infix expression A+B+(C+D)/F+D+E is
 A AB+CD+ *F/D+E* B ABCD+ *F/+ DE* + C A*B+CD/F+DE++ D None of these
Data-Structures       Prefix-Postfix-Expression
Question 45 Explanation:
The given infix expression is,
(A + B + (C + D))/ (F + D + F)
⇒ Push ‘(’

⇒ Push ‘+’

⇒ Since ‘+’ is Left associative, so ‘+’ in stack will have higher procedure then the current ‘+’, hence pop it,

⇒ Push ‘+’

⇒ Push ‘(’

⇒ Push ‘+’

⇒ Now on looking ‘)’ we will pop all the operators till first ‘(‘,

⇒ Pop

⇒ Push /

⇒ Push ‘(’

⇒ Push ‘+’

⇒ Since + is left associative, so pop ‘+’,

⇒ Push up

⇒ Since ‘(’ came so pop till ‘)’,

⇒ Pop ‘/’

Hence, postfix expression is,
AB + CD ++ FD ++ E +/
 Question 46
If the binary search algorithm determines that the search argument is in the lower half of the array, which of the following statements will set the appropriate variable to the appropriate value?
 A Start Sub = Middle Sub – 1 : B Start Sub = Middle Sub + 1 : C Stop Sub = Middle Sub – 1 : D Stop Sub = Middle Sub + 1 :
Algorithms       Searching
Question 46 Explanation:
If binary search algorithm determines that the search argument is in the lower half of the array then
start sub = 0;
stop sub = Middle sub + 1;
 Question 47
Which of the following is not used as an intermediate representation?
 A Postfix notation B DAG C 3 address code D Context free grammar
Compiler-Design       Intermediate-code-generator
Question 47 Explanation:
Postfix, DAG , and three address code is an intermediate representation. But context free grammar is not an intermediate representation.
 Question 48
If L1 and L2 are two regular language defined as
L1 = (000, 001, 0, 010) and L2 = ( 00, 01, 0), then the number of strings in L1 ∪ L2 will be
 A 7 B 6 C 5 D 8
Theory-of-Computation       Regular-Language
Question 48 Explanation:
L1UL2 = (000,001,0,010,00,01)
Therefore no. of strings is 6.
 Question 49
Two finite state machines are said to be equivalent if they
 A Have same number of states B Have same number of edges C Have same number of states and edges D Recognize same set of tokens
Theory-of-Computation       Finite-Automata
Question 49 Explanation:
Two finite state machines are said to be equivalent if they recognize same set of tokens.
 Question 50
The number of productions of the following grammar is
```E → E+T | T
T → T*F | F
F → E| id ```
 A 5 B 3 C 6 D 4
Theory-of-Computation       Languages-and-Grammars
Question 50 Explanation:
Total 6 productions are there.
E->E+T
E->T
T->T*F
T->F
F->(E)
F->id
 Question 51
CFG can be recognized by a
 A push-down automata B 2-way linear bounded automata C both (A) and (B) D none of these
Theory-of-Computation       Context-Free-Grammar
Question 51 Explanation:
CFG can be recognized by push-down automata. Moreover every CFG is a CSG and every CSG can be recognized by linear bounded automata. Hence every CFG can be recognized by linear bounded automata.
 Question 52
Canonical derivations are otherwise called as
 A left most derivations B right most derivations C left most reductions D right most reductions
Question 52 Explanation:
A rightmost derivation step is also called canonical. If every derivation step is rightmost, then this is a canonical derivation. Each in a derivation is called a sequential form of G.
 Question 53
Which of the following implementations of three address codes occupy less space?
 A Triple B Quadruples C Indirect triples D All will occupy same space
Question 53 Explanation:
Indirect triples occupy the least space as they are just pointers to triples.
 Question 54
Macro-expansion type parameter passing is called as
 A Call-by value B Call-by reference C Copy-restore D Call-by name
Compiler-Design       Compilers
Question 54 Explanation:
For C, "call-by-macro-expansion" doesn't exist. Instead, for macros the preprocessor does a glorified "cut&paste" operation on raw text.
 Question 55
With a single resource, deadlock occurs
 A If there are more than two processes competing for that resource B If there are only two processes competing for that resource C If there is a single process competing for that resource D None of these
Question 55 Explanation:
With a single resource deadlock can never occur. For a deadlock to occur atleast two resource should be there. Suppose that two resources are there and two processes are there then each process will acquire one resource and wait for the resources held by opposition process to complete and this way deadlock can occur.
 Question 56
Mutual exclusion problem occurs between
 A Two disjoint processes that do not interact B Processes that share resources C Processes that do not use the same resource D None of these
Operating-Systems       Process-Synchronization
Question 56 Explanation:
Mutual exclusion problem occurs between processes that share resources.
 Question 57
In a Round Robin CPU scheduling, as the time quantum is increased, the average turn-around time
 A Increases B Decreases C Remains constant D Varies irregularly
Operating-Systems       Process-Scheduling
Question 57 Explanation:
In round robin scheduling algorithm time quantum is nowhere related to turn around time.
 Question 58
A computer system has 4k word cache organized in a block-set-associative manner, with 4 blocks per set, 64 words per block. The number of bits in the SET and WORD fields of the main memory address format is
 A 15, 4 B 6, 4 C 7, 2 D 4, 6
Computer-Organization       Cache
Question 58 Explanation:

Size of block = 64 w = 26 w
So, offset bit = 6
No. of blocks in a cache = 212/26 = 26
No. of sets in cache = 26/22 = 24
So, index bits = 4
 Question 59
Relocatable programs
 A Cannot be used with fixed partitions B Can be loaded almost anywhere in memory C Do not need a linker D Can be loaded only at one specific location
Operating-Systems       Memory-Management
Question 59 Explanation:
Relocatable programs can be loaded almost any where in memory because they use relocatable address.
 Question 60
Program threats are
 A Trojan Horse B Trap doors C Both (A) and (B) D None of these
Question 60 Explanation:
Program threats are :
Trojan Horse − Such program traps user login credentials and stores them to send to malicious user who can later on login to computer and can access system resources.
Trap Door − If a program which is designed to work as required, have a security hole in its code and perform illegal action without knowledge of user then it is called to have a trap door.
Logic Bomb − Logic bomb is a situation when a program misbehaves only when certain conditions met otherwise it works as a genuine program. It is harder to detect.
Virus − Virus as name suggest can replicate themselves on computer system. They are highly dangerous and can modify/delete user files, crash systems. A virus is generally a small code embedded in a program. As user accesses the program, the virus starts getting embedded in other files/ programs and can make system unusable for user.
 Question 61
Time complexity of an algorithm T(n), where n is the input size is given by
```T(n) = T(n-1)+1/n, if n<1
= 1, otherwise ```
The order of this algorithm is
 A log n B n C n2 D nn
Algorithms       Time-Complexity
Question 61 Explanation:
T(n) = T(n-1) + 1/n --- (I)
T(n-1) = T(n-2) + 1/n-1 ---(II)
T(n-2) = T(n-3) + 1/n-2 ---(III)
Putting (II) in (I),
T(n) = T(n-2) + 1/n-1 + 1/n ---(IV)
Putting (III) in (IV),
T(n) = T(n-3) + 1/n-2 + 1/n-1 + 1/n

T(n) = T(n-k) + 1/n-(k+1) + … 1/n-2 + 1/n-1 + 1/n
Base condition is,
T(1) = 1
So, n-k = 1
k = n-1
So, T(n) = T(1) + 1/n-(n-1) + ½ + … + 1/n-1 + 1/n
= 1 + 1/1 + ½ + ⅓ + … + 1/n
= O(log n)
 Question 62
Which of the following statements is true?
I. As the number of entries in a hash table increases, the number of collisions increases.
II. Recursive programs are efficient.
III. The worst case complexity for quick sort is O(n2).
IV. Binary search using a linear linked list is efficient.
 A I and II B II and III C I and IV D I and III
Question 62 Explanation:
I. True
II. Not always true.
III. True
IV. False, binary search using array is efficient, because using linked list random access is not possible.
 Question 63
Breadth first traversal is a method to traverse
 A All successor of a visited node before any successors of any of those successors B A single path of the graph as far it can go C Graph using shortest path D None of these
Data-Structures       Graphs-and-Tree
Question 63 Explanation:
Breadth first traversal is a method to traverse all successor of a visited node before any successors of any of those successors.
 Question 64
The algorithm design technique used in the quick sort algorithm is
 A Dynamic programming B Back tracking C Divide and conquer D Greedy method
Algorithms       Sorting
Question 64 Explanation:
The algorithm design technique used in the quick sort algorithm is divide and conquer.
 Question 65
Algorithm which solves the all-pair shortest path problem is
 A Dijkstra’s algorithm B Floyd’s algorithm C Prim’s algorithm D Warshall’s algorithm E B & D
Algorithms       Dynamic-Programming
Question 65 Explanation:
Dijkstra’s algorithm is a single source shortest path algorithm.
Floyd’s warshall is all pair shortest path algorithm.
Prim's algorithm is minimum spanning tree algorithm.
 Question 66
Consider the following two functions:
```g1(n) = {n3 for 0≤n<10,000 n2 for n≥10,000
g2(n) = {n for 0≤n<100 n3 for n≥100  ```
Which of the following is true?
 A g1(n) is O(g2(n)) B g1(n) is 0(n3) C g2(n) is 0 (g1(n)) D g2(n) is 0(n)
Algorithms       Asymptotic-Complexity
Question 66 Explanation:
Whenever we go for asymptotic complexity, we look for large value of n. So in the given question, for large value of n like n>=10000, g1(n)=n2 and g2(n)=n3. So clearly g1(n) is O(g2(n)).
 Question 67
Who got the Nobel Prize for Peace in the year 2011?
 A Thomas Sargent B Christopher Sims C Ellen Johnson Sirleaf. Leymah Gbowee and Tawakkol Karman D Domas Transtroma
Question 67 Explanation:
The Nobel Peace Prize 2011 was awarded jointly to Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Leymah Gbowee and Tawakkol Karman "for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work."
 Question 68
Which country won the Kabaddi World Cup, 2011?
 A United Kingdom B India C Canada D Germany
Question 68 Explanation:
India won the kabaddi world cup, 2011.
 Question 69
The Raman effect is used in the study of
 A X-rays B Cells C Chromosomes D Molecular energy
Question 69 Explanation:
The spectrum of the Raman-scattered light depends on the molecular constituents present and their state, allowing the spectrum to be used for material identification and analysis. Raman spectroscopy is used to analyze a wide range of materials, including gases, liquids, and solids.
 Question 70
Green India Programme is the National Action plan on
 A Pollution B Climate change C Rainfall D Environment
Question 70 Explanation:
GIM is one of the eight key Missions outlined under National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC). It aims at protecting, enhancing and restoring India's decreasing forest cover and responding to climate change by a combination of mitigation and adaptation measures.
 Question 71
Which of the following is measured on the Richter scale?
 A Density of liquids B Intensity of earthquakes C Velocity of tornadoes D Height of mountains
Question 71 Explanation:
The Richter scale measures the maximum amplitude of seismic waves as they reach seismographs. This scale is expressed with a logarithmic scale. Thus, an earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter scale would be 10 times larger than an earthquake that measures 6.0.
 Question 72
Who led the French forces during the battle of Waterloo?
 A Duke of Wellington B Duke of Cornwall C Napoleon Bonaparte D Duke of Scotland
Question 72 Explanation:
A French army under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated by two of the armies of the Seventh Coalition: an Anglo-led Allied army under the command of the Duke of Wellington, and a Prussian army under the command of Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher.
 Question 73
Which of the following is a direct tax?
 A Excise duty B Sales tax C Income tax D Both (B) & (C)
Question 73 Explanation:
A taxpayer, for example, pays direct taxes to the government for different purposes, including real property tax, personal property tax, income tax or taxes on assets. Therefore, income tax is a direct tax.
 Question 74
In an 8085 microprocessor system with memory mapped I/O.
 A I/O devices have 8 bit addresses B I/O devices are accessed using IN and OUT instructions C There can be maximum of 256 input devices and 256 output devices D Arithmetic and logic operations can be directly performed with the I/O data
Computer-Organization       Microprocessor
Question 74 Explanation:
In a 8085 microprocessor system with memory mapped I/O then Arithmetic and logic operations can be directly performed with the I/O data. ... An arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) is the part of a computer processor (CPU) that carries out arithmetic and logic operations on the operands in computer instruction words.
 Question 75
Consider the following set of statements?
```       Float x, y :
x=7;y=10:
x*=y*=y*28.5 : ```
After the execution of the above set of statements, the value of x will be
 A 70 B 2695 C 2995 D None of these
Programming       Data-Type
Question 75 Explanation:
Arithmetic operator has the higher precedence so y*28.5 will be calculated first which will give 10*28.5=285.
So now the statement will become x*=y*=285;
The assignment operator has right to left associativity. So now,
x*=(y=y*285)
x*=(y=10*285)
x*=(y=2850)
x=x*2850
x=7*2850
x=19950
 Question 76
Depth of a complete binary tree with n nodes is (where log is to the base 2).
 A log (n+1)-1 B log (n) C log (n-1)+1 D log (n)+1
Data-Structures       Binary-Trees
Question 76 Explanation:
Let's take example,

n=7
So depth is 2.
Now let's check option by option,
A) log(n+1) - 1
log(7+1) - 1
= 3 - 1 = 2
B) log n
log 7
= 2・8
C) log(n-1) + 1
log(7-1) + 1
log 6 + 1 = 2.58 + 1
= 3.58
D) log n + 1
log 7 + 1
= 2・8 + 1 = 3.8
 Question 77
The following sequence of operations is performed on a stack:
`PUSH ( 10 ). PUSH ( 20 ). POP. PUSH ( 10 ). PUSH ( 20 ). POP.  POP. POP. PUSH ( 20 ). POP `
The sequence of values popped out is
 A 20, 10, 20, 10, 20 B 20, 20, 10, 10, 20 C 10, 20, 20, 10, 20 D 20, 20, 10, 20, 10
Data-Structures       Queues-and-Stacks
Question 77 Explanation:
⇒ Push(10)

⇒ Push(20)

⇒ Pop 20

⇒ Push(10)

⇒ Push(20)

⇒ Pop 20

⇒ Pop 10

⇒ Pop 10

⇒ Push(20)

⇒ Pop 20
 Question 78
The larger the RAM of computer for faster is the speed since it eliminates
 A Need for ROM B Need for external memory C Frequent disk I/O D Need for a data wide path
Operating-Systems       Memory-Management
Question 78 Explanation:
Since RAM size is large so there will be less page fault, hence less disk I/O.
 Question 79
The language L = {anbmcndm |n≥1, m≥1}
 A Is context free B Is not context free C Abstract problem of checking number of formal and actual parameters D Both (B) and (C).
Theory-of-Computation       Context-Free-Language
Question 79 Explanation:
The given language is not context free because first we will push a’s and then we cant push b’s because we have to pop the a’s from the stack with corresponding c’s. And since we cant push b’s which cannot be compared by further d’s which is dependent on b’s.
Also given language is abstract problem of checking number of formal and actual parameters.
 Question 80
What is the highest type number which can be applied to the following grammar?
`S→Aa, A→Ba, B→abc `
 A Type 0 B Type 1 C Type 2 D Type 3
Theory-of-Computation       Languages-and-Grammars
Question 80 Explanation:
The given grammar is left linear grammar which is also a regular grammar. Hence the highest type number which can be applied to the following grammar is Type 3 which is notation for regular grammar.
 Question 81
How many 4 digit even numbers have all 4 digits distinct?
 A 2240 B 2296 C 2620 D 4536
Engineering-Mathematics       Combinatorics
Question 81 Explanation:
For the no. to be even last digit should be even,
Case-3: Last digit contains ‘0’,

= 9 × 8 × 7
= 504
Case-2: Last digit does not contains ‘0’,

= 8 × 8 × 7 × 4C1
= 1792
∴ Answer is = 1792 + 504 = 2296
 Question 82
In a group of 72 students, 47 have background in Electrical, 59 have background in Mathematics and 42 have background in both the subjects. How many students do not have background in any of the subjects?
 A 8 B 13 C 25 D 34
Engineering-Mathematics       Set-Theory
Question 82 Explanation:
Let E be Electrical
Let M be Mathematics
Now,
Given: E = 47
M = 59
E ⋂ M = 42

We know that,

Now,
E ∪ M = E + M - (E⋂M)
= 47 + 59 - 42
= 106 - 42
= 64
 Question 83
The number of different signals which can be given from 6 flags of different colours taken one or more at a time, is
 A 1958 B 1956 C 16 D 64
Engineering-Mathematics       Combinatorics
Question 83 Explanation:
The no. of different signals which can be given from 6 flags of different colours taking n colours at a time,

where,
1 ≤ n ≤ 6
when n=1,
6C1 × ∠1 = 6
when n=2,
6C6 × ∠2 = 30
when n=3,
6C3 × ∠3 = 120
when n=4,
6C4 × ∠4 = 360
when n=5,
6C5 × ∠5 = 720
when n=6,
6C6 × ∠6 = 720
Total no. of ways
= 6 + 30 + 120 + 360 + 720 + 720
= 1956
 Question 84
For matrix , the eigenvector is
 A [3 2] B [4 3] C [2 -1] D [-2 1] E C and D
Engineering-Mathematics       Linear-Algebra
Question 84 Explanation:

 Question 85
A given grammar is said to be ambiguous if
 A Two or more productions have the same non-terminal on the left hand side B A derivation tree has more than one associated sentence C There is a sentence with more than one derivation tree corresponding to it D Brackets are not present in the grammar
Compiler-Design       Ambiguous-and-Unambiguous-Grammar
Question 85 Explanation:
A given grammar is said to be ambiguous if for a sentence or a string there is more than one derivation tree present for it.
 Question 86
These are five records in a database:
```Name       Age      Occupation       Category
Raman      27           CON             A
Akbar      22           ENG             B
Janifar    28           DOC             C
Maya       32           SER             D
Deva       24           MUS             E  ```
There is an index file associated with this and it contains the values 1, 3, 2, 5, 4. Which one of the fields is the index built form?
 A Age B Name C Occupation D Category
Database-Management-System       Indexing
Question 86 Explanation:
Occupation is the field from which the index is built from, taking first letter into consideration which is ordered as they are alphabetically ordered..
First CON-Starts with C
Second DOC-Starts with D
Third ENG-Starts with E
Fourth MUS-starts with M
Fifth SER-Strats with S
 Question 87
IP address can be used to specify a broadcast and map to hardware broadcast, if available. By conversion broadcast address has hosted with all bits is
 A 0 B 1 C Both (A) and (B) D None of these
Question 87 Explanation:
For limited broadcast all bits are 1 in destination IP address.
 Question 88
Manchester code is a
 A NRZ code B Polar code C Both (A) and (B) D None of these
Computer-Networks       Manchester-coding
Question 88 Explanation:
Manchester code is a polar code.
NRZ code is a unipolar code.
 Question 89
A noiseless 3 kHz channel transmits bits with binary level signals. What is the maximum data rate?
 A 3 kbps B 6 kbps C 12 kbps D 24 kbps
Computer-Networks       Data-and-Signals
Question 89 Explanation:
Bitrate = 2 * Bandwidth * log2(L)
where,
L = no. of signal levels
Since it is saying binary level signals, it means two level signals.
So,
L = 2
∴ Bitrate = 2 * 3 * 103 * log22
= 6 × 103 × 1 bps
= 6 kbps
 Question 90
Poor response time is caused by
 A Process or busy B High I/O rate C High paging rates D All of these
Operating-Systems       Memory-Management
Question 90 Explanation:
Poor response times are usually caused by Process busy, High I/O rates and High paging rates. ... In computing, a process is an instance of a computer program that is being executed. It contains the program code and its activity.
 Question 91
Parallel printer uses
 A RS 232 C interface B Centronics interface C Handshake mode D All of these
Question 91 Explanation:
On PCs, the parallel port uses a 25-pin connector (type DB-25) and is used to connect printers, computers and other devices that need relatively high bandwidth. It is often called a Centronics interface after the company that designed the original standard for parallel communication between a computer and printer.
 Question 92
Consider join of a relation R with a relation S. If R has m tuples and S has n tuples then maximum and minimum sizes of the join respectively are
 A m+n and O B mn and O C m+n and m-n D mn and m+n
Database-Management-System       Relational-Algebra
Question 92 Explanation:
For maximum no. of tuples,
If every row of r matches with each row of s, i.e., it means, the join attribute has the same value in all the rows of both r and s, then maximum mn tuples possible.
For minimum no. of tuples, if condition of join is not satisfied for any tuple then, minimum 0 tuples will be there.
 Question 93
Errors that can be pointed out by the compiler are
 A Syntax errors B Semantic errors C Logical errors D Internal errors
Compiler-Design       Compilers
Question 93 Explanation:
The errors that can be pointed out by the compiler are Syntax error. In computer science, a syntax error is an error in the syntax of a sequence of characters or tokens that is intended to be written in a particular programming language. For compiled languages, syntax errors are detected at compile-time.
 Question 94
Consider six files: F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6 with corresponding sizes 100, 200, 70, 40, 250 and 50 respectively. The files are to be stored on a sequential device in such a way that as to optimize access time. In what order should the files be stored?
 A F6, F5, F4, F3, F2, F1 B F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6 C F5, F2, F1, F3, F6, F4 D F4, F6, F3, F1, F2, F5
Question 94 Explanation:
To optimize access time of the files they should be placed in a sequential device according to their sizes in increasing order.
So the order will be F4, F6, F3, F1, F2, F5.
 Question 95
Disk requests come to a disk driver for cylinders 10, 22, 20, 2, 40, 6 and 38. In that order at a time when the disk drive is reading from cylinder 20. The seek time is 6 ms per cylinder. If the scheduling algorithm is the closest cylinder next, then the total seek time will be
 A 360 ms B 876 ms C 850 ms D 900 ms
Operating-Systems       Disk-Scheduling
Question 95 Explanation:

∴ Total Seek time,
No. of cylinder movement × Seek time per cylinder
((22-20) + (22-10) + (10-6) + (6-2) + (38-2) + (40-35)) × 6
= (2 + 12 + 4 + 4 + 36 + 2) × 6
= (22 + 38) × 6
= 360
 Question 96
A search procedure which associates an address with a key value and provides a mechanism for dealing with two or more values assigned to the same address is called
 A Linear search B Binary search C Hash coded search D Radix search
Data-Structures       Hashing
Question 96 Explanation:
A search procedure which associates an address with a key value and provides a mechanism for dealing with two or more values assigned to the same address is called Hash coded search.
 Question 97
Search tables used by compilers for efficient searching generally use
 A Hash tables B Linear lists of records C Binary search tables D Binary search trees
Compiler-Design       Symbol-Table
Question 97 Explanation:
Search table used by compilers for efficient searching is hash tables.
 Question 98
he running time of an algorithm T(n) where (n) is the input size, is given by
```T(n) = 7T(n/2)+qn, if n>1
= p if n=1 ```
Where p, q are constants.
The order of the algorithm is
 A n2 B nn C n3 D n
Algorithms       Recurrences
Question 98 Explanation:
T(n) = 7T(n/2) + qn
a=7, b=2, k=1
a > bk, so Case 1 applies here.
Hence the answer is,
 Question 99
Uniform symbol table
 A Contains all constants in the program B Is a permanent table of division rules in the form of patterns for matching with the uniform symbol table to discover syntactic structure C Consists of full or partial list of the tokens as they appear in the program, created by Lexical Analysis and used for syntax analysis and interpretation D A permanent table which lists all key words and special symbols of the language in symbolic form
Compiler-Design       Symbol-Table
Question 99 Explanation:
Uniform Symbols Table consists of a full or partial list of the token's as they appear in the program. Created by Lexical analysis and used for syntax analysis and interpretation.
There are 99 questions to complete.